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In 1441 B.C.E. Moses invented the original Alphabet in the Sinai.

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Discovering  the  Two-Dimensional  Structure  of
the  Alphabetical  Order*

by Dr. Ed Metzler

Dr. Metzler-Moziani (Photo), The Metzler Formula

       §   1.  The  scientific  method  of  discoveries
may  be  very similar, although the fields, in which
they  are  made,  are  quite  different. In mid April
of  1983,  I  had  the  idea  of trying to arrange the
one-dimensional  order  of  alphabetical  letters on
a  two-dimensional  table, as Mendeleyeff did with
chemical   elements,   when   he  discovered  their
periodic   system.  After  about  a  month  of  trial
and  error  I  found  the two-dimensional structure


            *Dedicated   to   my   good   friendarrowYitzhak   Greenfield   in
Jerusalem,   Israel,   aarrowgreat   artist   in   whose   graphic   work  the
alphabet   is   a   prominent  subject,  cf.  Notesarrow17  andarrow35  infra.


Ed  Metzler

of  the  alphabetical order, its didactic system, and
its  Israelite  origin.  I  published  my discovery on
Simchat  Torah  in  September of 1983 in the first
German edition of my book entitled “TORAH OF
THE ALPHABET or How the Art of Writing was
Taught  under  the  Judges of Israel (14411025),
Reconstruction  of  the  2 Tablets of Moses in the
Original   Alphabet
”,  which  I  wrote  under  the
pen-name  ELIYAHU  MOZIANI.1)
       §  2.  The letter of the law is the professional
concern  of  jurisprudence  as  an  applied cultural
science,  art  or  technology,  which  is  as  closely
related  to  cultural  anthropology  as  medicine  is
to   physical   anthropology   or  human  biology.2)


            1)   Eliyahu  Moziani,arrowTORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  or
How  the  Art  of  Writing  was  Taught  under the Judges of Israel
(14411025),  Reconstruction  of  the  2  Tablets  of  Moses in the
Original  Alphabet
,  translated from the 2nd German edition (1984)
by    the   author,   2nd   English   ed.   (1985)   ISBN   3-924448-02-7
(hardcover),  published  by  Baalschem  Press,  and  selling for US-
Dollars  12.95  (hereinafter cited as TORAH OF THE ALPHABET).
From  the  precise  measurements  of  the  tablets  I calculated their
volumes  and  weights,  cf. Ed Metzler, Discovering the System of
Mosaical Metrology, (Herborn 1985) pp.arrow47.
            2)  Culture  is  the software of human biology, and indepen-
dent  of  whether  the  original  hardware  is still extant, cf. TORAH
OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1) p.arrow20. However, there is hope that


Alphabetical  Order

Hence  the  palaeography  of the original alphabet
is  well  within  the  scope  of  legal history, if the
Tablets  of  the  Law hewn and written by Moses
in  the  Sinai,  3427 years ago, were the first legal
document in alphabetical script, and the beginning
of  alphabetical  literature.  This opinion had been
expressed  already  by professor Hubert Grimme,
an   expert  of  proto-Sinaitic  inscriptions,  in  his
article  on  the  “Alphabet”  in  the Encyclopaedia
Judaica   of  1928,  and  I  was  able  to  prove  it
by   discovering  the  three-dimensional  structure
of  the  Ten  Commandments.3)


the  original  tablets  of  Moses  may  still  be  waiting  to  be found
in  a  Genizah,  see Ed Metzler, Mosaical Metrology (N. 1) p.arrow19.
Reconstructing  cultural  phenomena,  such  as  the  original Indo-
European language, is not a new endeavor in comparative cultural
sciences,  and  dates  back  to  the days of Franz Bopp. But, while
there  is  no  end  to  reconstructing  an  entire  language  from the
most  ancient  sources available, the graphic reconstruction of the
22  letters  in  the  original  alphabet is a limited task that was to be
accomplished  some  day.
            3)   Cf.   Ed   Metzler,  Discovering  the  Three-Dimensional
Structure   of   the   Ten   Commandments,   (Herborn   1986)  p.  7.
Thus,  the  Bible  constitutes  the oldest collection of alphabetical
literature   that  grew  around  the  law  of  the  two  tablets  of  the
Torah  of  Moses  from  the  Sinai  (Ibid. p. 29). The correctness of
my   reconstruction  of  the  Mosaical  tablets  can  be  proven  by
empirical   and   mathematical   evidence,  because  they  were  the
prototypes  of  ancient weights and measures (Ibid. pp.arrow1823).


Ed  Metzler

A. Similarities of Consecutive and Remote
Letters in the One-Dimensional
Alphabetical Order

       § 3. The Roman alphabet, which spread over
the  whole  world,  as  well as the Greek alphabet,
from  which  the  Russian  alphabet is derived, are
descendants  of the ancient Hebrew alphabet, also
known  as  the Phoenician alphabet, for Phoenicia
(Punt)   or   Canaan  is  identical  with  Solomonic
Israel.4)  The  cuneiform  alphabet of Ugarit is one
of    ist   earliest   descendants,  while  the  Arabic
alphabet  is  one  of  its  latest.  In some alphabets
the   graphic  shapes  of  letters  changed  beyond


            4)  According  to  Herodotus,  Histories, V, 5861 the ancient
Hebrew  alphabet  as  well  as  many  other  arts  and  sciences  were
imported   to   Greece  several  centuries  before  the  classical  Greek
period   by   Kadmos   (Hebrew   Kadmon   “ancient  ancestor”),  the
legendary   founder  of  Thebes  and  son  of  King  Achiram  (Greek
“Agenor”)   of  Tyre  in  Phoenicia.  Herodotus  (Ibid.  VII,  89)  calls
all   Hebrew-speaking   inhabitants  of  Canaan  “Phoenicians”,  and
speaks of the Jews, who had finished rebuilding the Second Temple
in  515  B. C. E.  (Ezra  6,  15),  correctly  as  those  Phoenicians  who,
by   their   own   account,   migrated  to  Canaan  from  the  Red  Sea,
obviously   referring   to   their   Exodus  from  Egypt.  The  alphabet
was  exported  by  the  navy  of King Solomon, and his Tyrian allies
as   far   as   southern   Spain   (1.  Kings  10,  22),  cf.  Note  13  infra.


Alphabetical  Order

recognition,  in  others  their phonetic values were
readjusted to meet the needs of foreign languages,
some retained the original letter names, and others
dropped  them  altogether.5) Thus, the alphabetical
order  of  letters,  characteristic  of every alphabet
in   the   strict   sense,  turns  out  to  be  its  most
resistant aspect.6)
       § 4. The alphabetical order of the Latin ABC,
which  dropped  the  letters  ZayinTetSamekh,
and  Tzadi,  but  added  G, V, X, Y,  and  Z,  has
18  out of 22 letters in common with the sequence
of  letters  in  the  ancient Hebrew alphabet.7) The


            5)  The  cuneiform  alphabet  was  used  in  Ugarit  during its
last   two   centuries,  which  are  contemporary  with  the  first  two
centuries   of   the   Israelite   monarchy   (ca.   1030830   B.  C.  E.),
as   proved   by   Immanuel   Velikovsky,   From   Exodus   to   King
Akhnaton,   (1952)   chapters  3  and  5; confirmed  by  Ed  Metzler,
Mosaical  Metrology (N. 1) p. 24. Ugarit did not adopt the alphabet
before  Old  Hebrew  had  lost  the  “th”-sound  toward  the  end of
the ancient Israelite republic, see below Notearrow34.
            6)   Neither   the   so-called Egyptian “alphabet” of  one-con-
sonant hieroglyphs nor the so-called Ethiopian “alphabet”, in spite
of  its  Sinaitic  origin,  are  alphabets  in  the  strict  sense, because
Alef  and  Bet  were  never  placed  at  the  top  of their sequence of
letters, cf. Ed Metzler, Ten Commandments (N. 3) p. 29.
            7)  The  letter  G  was  formed  out  of  C,  and inserted where
Zayin  was  dropped,  while  V, X, Y,  and  Z  were added at the end
of  the  ancient  Hebrew  alphabet,  and  thus  are  irrelevant  for the
alphabetical  order,  cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET (N. 1) p. 23.


Ed  Metzler

Greek  alphabet  dropped the letters Waw, Tzadi,
and  Kof,  but  added  Ypsilon, Phi, Chi, Psi, and
Omega,  so that it shares 19 out of 22 letters with
the ancient Hebrew alphabet.8) All of its 22 letters
occur  in  the same order in the Ugaritic alphabet,
which   has   eight   additional  letters.  Since  the
chances  of  hitting  the  same  alphabetical order
of  22  letters  at  random  are  one  in billions of
thousands  of  billions,  all  of the alphabets must
be  descendants  of  one  original  alphabet.9) Yet,
it  seemed  as if we would never know the genius
who  invented  it.


            8)  The  obsolete letters Waw (F) and Kof (Q) were retained
as  Greek  numerals  at their appropriate places in the alphabetical
order,  so  that  the  Greek  alphabet  originally even had 21 letters
in  common  with  the  ancient  Hebrew alphabet. Since Tzadi was
dropped,  the  numerical  value  of  Hebrew Kof (100) is only 90 in
Greek.  Another  obsolete letter-name retained as a numeral (900),
although   not  at  its  former  place  in  the  alphabetical  order,  is
Sampi “shut up!”, see below Notearrow27.
            9)  The Sefer Yetzirah (chapter 4, no. 16) gives the number
of permutations for seven letters (= 5040) adding, “continue from
here  on  to  calculate  what  the  mouth  cannot  say,  and the ear
cannot  hear .”  The uniqueness of the one and only alphabetical
order  is illustrated by the number of possibilities of arranging its
22  letters in different orders, which is not infinite, but calculable:
22!  = 1· 2· 3· 4· 5· 6· 7· 8· 9· 10·11·12·13·14·15·16·17·18·19·20·21·22 =
1  124  000  727  777  607  680  000,   i.  e.   billions   of   thousands
of   billions,   see   TORAH   OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  p.  53.


Alphabetical  Order

       §   5.   Three   typical   similarities   of   letters
have  been  known  for a long time.10) The phonetic
and  graphic  similarity  of  M  and N, which I shall
call  the  Mem-Nun  type  of  similarity,  is  obvious
to   every   child.   A  comparable  similarity  is  the
He-Chet  type,  and  the  Tet-Taw type. In all three
cases  phonetic  similarities  correspond  to  graphic
similarities,   and  phonetic  differences  to  graphic
differences.11)  But  while  Mem  and  Nun form the
seventh  consecutive  pair  of  letters  in the ancient
Hebrew   alphabet,   He   and  Chet  are  separated
by  two  intervening  letters,  as  Tet  and  Taw  are


            10) Cf. Joseph Halévy, Mélanges d’épigraphie et d’archéologie
sémitiques,   (1874)   pp.   168   and   179,  who  observed  already  that
Mem   appears   to   be  just  a  modification  of  Nun,  as  Chet  of  He,
and  Tet  of  Taw.
            11)   The   phonetic  similarity  of  the  nasal  sounds  M  and  N
is  parallelled  by  the  graphic  similarity  of the ancient Hebrew letters
Mem   and   Nun,   that   changed   little   in  the  Roman  alphabet. The
phonetic  difference  of  the  bilabial  M,  pronounced with closed lips,
from  the  dental  N, pronounced with the teeth showing, corresponds
to  their  graphic  difference,  since  the  more  nasal  M  has  one more
stroke.   Similarly,   the   letter  He  looks  like  a  mirror-imaged  E,  and
Chet,  which  stands  for  a  more  closed  “h”-sound,  is  obtained  by
closing  it.  The  ancient  Hebrew  letter  Taw is x-shaped, whereas the
letter   Tet,   which   represents   an  emphatic  or  velarized  “t”-sound
with   a  more  closed  mouth  position,  is  derived  from  Taw  by  en-
closing   it   with   a   circle,  see  below  p.  30,  and  TORAH  OF  THE
ALPHABET  (N.  1)  pp.  65,  77,  and  85,  cf.  also  pp.  59,  61, and 71.


Ed  Metzler

separated   by  twelve  intervening  letters.  Maybe
these   remote   letters  were  close  to  each  other
originally   in   a  two-dimensional  pattern,  which
was  destroyed,  later  on,  by the one-dimensional
alphabetical  order?12) 

B. The Two-Dimensional Arrangement of
the Alphabetical Order on a
Didactic Table

       §  6.  After  its  invention the original alphabet
had  to  be taught in order to survive. The teacher,
then  as  now, faced the same practical problem of


            12)   Wondering   why   the   letters   Tet  and  Taw,  in  spite
of    their    obvious   similarity,   are   numbers   9   and   22   in   the
alphabetical  order,  and  likewise  why  He  and  Chet  are numbers
5  and  8,  is  the  decisive  question answered below in the diagram
on   pagearrow14.   A  comparable  problem  is  the  three-dimensional
structure   of   the   Ten   Commandments,   which   was  destroyed
by  the  one-dimensional  copy  of  the  biblical text, cf. Ed Metzler,
Ten  Commandments  (N.  3)  Notesarrow23  andarrow52. Since there are
seventy   more   chemical   elements  than  alphabetical  letters,  the
two-dimensional   structure   of   the   alphabetical   order  was  less
easily  perceptible  than  the  periodic system of chemical elements,
because  there  could  not  possibly  be any periodicity of this kind
in   the   alphabet   due   to   the   much   smaller  number  of  letters.


Alphabetical  Order

how  to  arrange  its  twenty-two  letters on a two-
dimensional writing area, such as a sheet of paper,
a  blackboard  or  a slate tablet.13) Recognizing the
same  practical  problem  almost  three  and a half
thousand  years  later  may  also  lead to the same
solution. The  best  solution  is  a  tablet of 6 by 4
with  two  empty  spaces,  for  an area of 11 by 2
is  too  oblong,  while  a  square  of  5  letter-units
has  three  empty  spaces.14) Like a string of pearls
the  one-dimensional  alphabetical  order  must be
laid  out or coiled up in a two-dimensional pattern
in  such  a  way  as  to bring out the similarities of
remote  letters  by  their  nearness  on  the  tablet.


            13)  Such  an ancient Etruscan school-tablet, dated around
700  B. C. E.  was  found  in  Marsiliana,  Italy. All 22 letters of the
ancient  Hebrew  alphabet  are  inscribed  in  alphabetical order in
one  line  on  its  frame plus four additional letters at the end. The
shapes of most letters are still very close to their Hebrew original,
and  may  rightly  be  called  “Punic”  (Latin  for “Phoenician”), as
Herodotus  writes  with  respect to the most ancient Greek letters,
see  above  Note  4. In this context we should remember the story
told  by  Virgil  (cf.  Aeneid  I,  57)  about  a  man named Aeneas
(Hebrew Aenosh “man”), coming over from the Hebrew-speaking
Tyrian  colony  of  Carthage  to  found  a city on Capitol Hill, that
was  to  be  called  “Roma”  (Hebrew  Romah  “proud elevation”).
            14)  ThearrowTablets  of the Law of the Torah of Moses from
the  Sinai  (below  p. 26) turned out to have the same proportions
(6 : 4  =  3 : 2  = 1.5 : 1)  as  my  didactic  table (cf. Notearrow19 infra).


Ed  Metzler

       § 7. The ancient Hebrew alphabet consists of
the  following  twenty-two  letters: 1. Alef, 2. Bet,
3.  Gimel,  4.  Dalet,  5.  He,  6.  Waw, 7. Zayin,
8.  Chet,  9.  Tet,  10.  Yod,  11. Kaf, 12. Lamed,
13.   Mem,   14.   Nun,   15.  Samekh,  16.  Ayin,
17.  Peh,  18. Tzadi, 19. Kof, 20. Resh, 21. Shin,
and  22.  Taw.15)  The  first  step  towards  a two-
dimensional arrangement of the alphabetical order
is  dictated  by  the  prime  numbers of 22, which
are  two  times  eleven.  Hence the 22 letters may
at   first   be  arranged  in  an  oblong  column  of
11  pairs  of  letters,  which  must be consecutive
in  keeping  with  the alphabetical order of letters:


            15)  This  alphabetical  order  of the ancient Hebrew alphabet
is  known  from  the acrostic compositions in the Bible, in particular
the  Proverbs  of King Solomon 31, 1031, and the Lamentations of
Jeremiah 1, 122, in which successive verses begin with the letters
of  the  alphabet,  furthermore  from  Psalms  111  and  112 with con-
secutive  pairs  of  letters to a verse, as well as Psalm 119 with units
of  eight verses , each beginning with the same letter. The complete
alphabetical  order  occurs  on  the  Marsiliana  tablet,  and on finds
from   Ugarit,   which  are  not  earlier  than  the  Israelite  monarchy,
see  above  Notearrow5.  The  letters  of  the ancient Hebrew alphabet
have  been  known  from  many inscriptions, since the Mesha stone
was  found  in  1868.  The  original  shapes  of  some  letters may be
restored  from  proto-Sinaitic inscriptions, e. g. by raising the horns
of  the  bull  (Alef), the hands of the human being (He), by opening
the  roof  of  the  house  (Bet),  and  placing a dot in the eye (Ayin).


Alphabetical  Order

1./2.  Alef-Bet, 3./4. Gimel-Dalet, 5./6. He-Waw,
7./8.  Zayin-Chet,  9./10.  Tet-Yod,  11./12.  Kaf-
,  13./14. Mem-Nun, 15./16. Samekh-Ayin,
17./18.  Peh-Tzadi, 19./20. Kof-Resh, and finally
21./22.  Shin-Taw.16)
       §  8. Splitting the oblong column of consecu-
tive  letter-pairs  into one column of six pairs, and
another  of  five  pairs  yields a better distribution
on  the  writing area by placing them next to each
other.  If  the  letters Mem and Nun are at the top
of  the  second  column,  the  letters Tet and Taw
happen   to   stand  on  the  same  horizontal  line


            16)   The   overriding  principle  in  all  future  considerations
is   the   inviolability   of   the  one-dimensional  alphabetical  order,
which  must  be  preserved  by  all  means  in  any two-dimensional
arrangement.  The  same  goes  for  the  above  eleven consecutive
letter-pairs,   which  must  not  be  separated,  when  dividing  them
into  two  columns.  Thus,  the  second  half of the alphabet begins
with   Mem   (cf.  Notearrow17  infra),  although  numerically  it  would
begin  with  Lamed,  which  has  to  stay  with  its  mate  Kaf  at the
bottom   of  the  first  column,  see  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET
(N.   1)  p.  67.  This  leaves  open  the  writing  direction  from  right
to  left  or  from  left  to  right  or both alternately (boustrophedon).
The consecutive pairs of letters supplement and explain each other
in  a  variety  of  ways,  that  helped  to  decipher hitherto unknown
meanings  of  letter-names,  especially Zayin-Chet “circumcision of
the  male  sexual  organ”  (Ibid.  pp.  8487),  Tet-Yod “potter’s clay
on   disk  with  working  hand”  (Ibid.  pp.  7681),  and  Kaf-Lamed
“male   and   female   sexual   organ”   (Ibid.   pp.   5259   and   108).


Ed  Metzler

forming  a  four-letter group or quaternity.17) The
sixteen  letters above the Tet-Yod-Shin-Taw qua-
ternity  are  arranged  in  four  square  blocks  of
four  letters  each  with  the second line of every
block   in  the  opposite  writing  direction  (bou-
.18)  It  brings  out  the  He-Chet type
of  similarity  by placing these letters above each
other  in  the  same  four-letter  group.  The  two
empty  spaces  at  the  end  are filled by Alef-Bet
to  read:  Kol  Alef-Bet    all  of  the alphabet.19)


            17)  See  the  didactic plate of the Hebrew alphabet, which
is a recurring theme in recent works of art by Yitzhak Greenfield:
On it the second half of the alphabet begins with Mem. Likewise,
the  second  line  of  a  cuneiform alphabet-tablet found in Ugarit
already began with the letter Mem.
            18)  On  account  of  the  oldest  Greek  and  proto-Sinaitic
inscriptions  a  boustrophedon  pattern  could  be  expected, and
was subsequently confirmed (cf. Note 24 infra).
            19)   The   above   three  typical  similarities  of  the  letters
13./14.  Mem-Nun, 5./8. He-Chet, and 9./22. Tet-Taw [violet, blue]
are  sufficient  to  determine the two-dimensional structure of the
2D Structure of the Alphabetical Order alphabetical    order,    which   is   graphically
illustrated   by   the   adjoining   diagram.   Its
numbers   are   the   ordinal   numbers  of  the
letters    in   the   alphabetical   order   of   the
ancient    Hebrew    alphabet.   This   diagram
also  determines  the  outlines  of the graphic
designs   of   the   Solomonic   alphabet,  and
of  the original Mosaical alphabet (see below
pp.arrow30  andarrow31),  reprinted  from TORAH
OF  THE  ALPHABET (N.arrow1) pp. 24 and 30.


Alphabetical  Order

C. Restoring the Original Alphabet from
the Didactic System of the
Alphabetical Order

       § 9. When I first published my reconstruction
of  the  original  alphabet  in  1983,  some illiterate
ignoramus  may  have  thought it to be nothing but
my  imagination  running  wild.20) Similarly, it must
have  seemed  like  magic  to an unscientific mind,
when   Mendeleyeff   predicted  the  chemical  ele-
ments  that  were  to  be  discovered  in  the years
after   he   had   found   their  periodic  system  in
1869.21)  However,  if  you  have  an  almost com-
plete   set  of  teeth,  it  is  no  miracle  to  imagine 


            20)  This  is  the assessment of an internationally renowned
professor  of  Bible  and  Semitic  languages  at  the  University  of
Zurich,  Switzerland,  quoted  in  the TORAH OF THE ALPHABET
(N.  1)  p.  11  calling  it  “the  obscene  fantasy  of  a  ghetto  Jew”,
and  denying  “the  Jews  and their Israelite forefathers the honor
of  having  given  to  the  world  the  principle  of phonetic script,
and  the  first  alphabet
.”  In  the  meantime,  however, it has been
recognized as aarrowscientific work of genius (Ibid. p. 10)
            21)  When  Mendeleyeff  discovered  his periodic system of
chemical  elements,  he  did not know their atomic structure, which
is  the  reason  for  it.  As  the  periodic  system  was  the  basis  of
atomic   theory,  my  didactic  table  of  the  alphabet  was  the  key
to   the  structure  of  the  Ten  Commandments  (cf.  p.arrow25  infra).


Ed  Metzler

what   the   missing  ones  looked  like.  By  filling
the gaps in his periodic table of chemical elements
Mendeleyeff  was  able  to  predict  the  discovery
of  missing  elements,  and  by  the  same method
I   was   able   to  restore  distorted  letters  in  the
original   alphabet   from  the  systematics  of  my
didactic table of alphabetical letters.22)
       §   10.   Upon  closer  examination  my  two-
dimensional  table of the alphabetical order, which
was  deduced  merely  from the three typical simi-
larities   of  the  letters  Mem-NunHe-Chet,  and
Tet-Taw,  proved to be a well-planned curriculum
for  a  one-week  course  in  alphabetic  writing.23)


            22)   Fortunately  only  the  letter  Samekh  is  so  distorted
as  to  be considered missing (cf. Note 27 infra). Some letters were
restored from proto-Sinaitic script, see above Notearrow15.
            23)   This   explains   the   title   and  character  of  my  book
TORAH   OF   THE   ALPHABET   (N.  1),  for  he  who  claims  to
have  discovered  a  didactic  system  should be able to present it
in   the   form   of  a  schoolbook.  The  well-known  Hebrew  word
t’-Orah  (whence  the  Greek  loan-word  theoria “theory”) means
“teaching” (Aramaic ’Oraita’) like m’-Orah “female teacher”, and
indicates   the  Israelite  origin  of  the  alphabet  in  the  Torah  of
Moses  from  the  Sinai  (see  below  p.arrow24).  Hence the alphabet
may be called “the oldest, and most successful illustrated school-
book  of  the  world”  (subtitle),  because the alphabetical order is
a  didactic system, as already suspected by H. Bauer-P. Leander,
Historical  Grammar of the Hebrew Language, (German 1922) p. 68.


Alphabetical  Order

The  four-letter  blocks  turned  out  to  be graphic-
didactic   units   designed   for   one  schoolday  of
four   lessons  each.24)  Every  lesson  consisted  of
one   letter,   that   could  be   developped   by  the
teacher   from  a  preceding  one.25)  The  sequence
of   schooldays   must   have   followed   the  same
boustrophedon   pattern  as  the  letters  within  the
square  quaternities: Alef-Bet-Gimel-Dalet on Sun-
day,  He-Waw-Zayin-Chet  on  Monday,  Tet-Yod-
   on  Tuesday,  Peh-Tzadi-Kof-Resh  on
Wednesday, Mem-Nun-Samekh-Ayin on Thursday,
and Kaf-Lamed-Alef-Bet on Friday.26)


            24)  See  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1) pp.arrow5299.
The   letters   Tet-Yod-Shin-Taw  are  the  turning-quaternity  in  the
boustrophedon arrangement of four-letter blocks.
            25)   As   a   rule  of  didactic  psychology,  the  easiest  letter
is  always  left  for  the last lesson, when the student may begetting
a   little   tired   already,   cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)
p.arrow69,  and  Notearrow28  infra.
            26)  In addition  to  this  graphic-didactic sequence of letters,
there   are  two  other  ways  to  read  my  two-dimensional  table  of
the   original   alphabet:  the  alphanumerical  sequence  (see  below
Note  47),  and  the  pictographic-symbolical sequence from bottom
to  top,  cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  pp.arrow4051,  in
which Kaf-Lamed-Alef-Bet symbolizes sexual intercourse (Be‘ilah),
Tet-Yod-Shin-Taw   pregnancy   or  formation  of  the  body  by  the
potter   (Yetzirah),   Peh-Tzadi-Kof-Resh   birth  (Ledah)He-Waw-
   circumcision   (Berit Milah)Mem-Nun-Samekh-Ayin
learning  (ta-Lmud),  and  Alef-Bet-Gimel-Dalet teaching (t’-Orah).


Ed  Metzler

       § 11. The most distorted letter to be restored
by  filling  a  gap  in  the  didactic  system  of  the
alphabetical  order  is  Samekh.27)  Unlike  the last
lessons of the other schooldays, that are obtained
by  slightly  changing  a  previous  letter, the Ayin
following  Samekh  at  the end of the fifth school-
day  cannot  be  derived  from  it  nor  from Mem
and  Nun  in  ancient  Hebrew  script.28)  This  de-
viation   from  a  rule  of  didactic  psychology  is
removed  by  assuming  that  Samekh  looked like
the  lips  (Sefatayim)  of  a  mouth  in  front view
originally,  for it may be turned into an eye (Ayin)
simply  by  adding a dot in the middle.29) This also


            27)  The  hissing sound of its voiceless “s” may be taken as
a   command   of   silence,   which  was  graphically  represented  in
ancient Hebrew script by aarrowvertical finger on the three horizontal
lines    of    the    lips   Samekh   Yad-kha   al   Pi-kha   “hold   your
mouth!”  or  Sam-pi  “shut  up!”,  cf. TORAH OF THE ALPHABET
(N.  1)  p.  27,  and  above  Note  8.
            28)   Thus,   on  the  first  schoolday  Dalet  is  derived  from
Gimel  by  closing  it  at  the  bottom,  on  the second Chet from He
likewise  by  closing  it,  on  the third Tet from Taw by surrounding
it   with   a   circle,   on   the  fourth  Resh  from  Kof  by  moving  its
vertical   line   sideways,   and   on  the  sixth  schoolday  only  two
easy  letters  remain  (cf.  Note  25  supra).
            29)  After  the  lips  were  redesigned  to read Samekh “shut
up!”,  the  distinguishing  dot  in  the  eye  was  no  longer needed,
and   omitted,  see  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  p.arrow61.


Alphabetical  Order

explains  why  the letter Peh “mouth” is shown in
profile, which would not make sense unless it had
to  be  distinguished  from the mouth shape of the
letter Samekh in the original alphabet.30) 

D.  The  Restored  Sounds,  Names,  and
Meanings  of  Letters  in  the
Original  Alphabet

       §  12.  A  phonetic  script reflects the phono-
logical  system  of  the  language  at  the time and
place  of  its  invention.31)  The  Bible  tells us that


            30)   Cf.   TORAH   OF   THE   ALPHABET   (N.  1)  p.arrow63.
A  graphic distinction between Peh “mouth” and Sefatayim “lips”
was   also   needed   in  ancient  south  Semitic  script,  which  is  a
non-alphabetic descendant of proto-Sinaitic. Its Peh has the same
shape   as   the   ancient  Egyptian  hieroglyph  “r mouth”,  while
the  lines  of  its  lips  are  overlapping at the corners of the mouth.
An  analogous  distinction  in  the  original  alphabet  is the house
in cross-section (Bet) as against its front view (Dalet).
            31) Like a phonograph, a phonetic script records the sound
of  a  language.  The  original  alphabet  reflects  the  phonemes of
Old  Hebrew  spoken  at  the  time  of   the  Exodus  from  Egypt  in
1441   B.  C.  E.   This   date,   which   marks  the  beginning  of  the
ancient   Israelite   republic  and  its  era,  is  as  highly  reliable  as
counting  the  Greek  Olympiads  or the years after the foundation
of  Rome,  cf.  Ed  Metzler,  Ten Commandments (N. 3) pp. 6 and 7.


Ed  Metzler

the  two  stone  Tablets of the Law with the Ten
Commandments on them were hewn and written
by  Moses  in  the  Sinai in 1441 B. C. E. This is
confirmed  by  the  proto-Sinaitic  inscriptions in
Old  Hebrew  found in the Sinai since 1905, and
generally  dated around the middle of the second
millennium   before  the  common  era.32)  Three
centuries  after  Moses a sound change occurred,
in  which  Hebrew  lost  the “th”-sound setting it
apart  from  other  Semitic languages. Hence the
original  alphabet  had to have a special letter for
“th”  that  I  spotted as Tzadi.33) Thus, languages


            32)  The  complete  decipherment  of  the  proto-Sinaitic  in-
scription  on  the pedestal of a sphinx, now in the British Museum
(no.  41  748),  was  presented,  for  the  first  time,  in  the  TORAH
OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  pp.  912  and  3239,  proving that
it  is  Old  Hebrew,  as  already claimed by Grimme, see above text
accompanying  Note  3  (loc. cit. at  405).  Hebrew  is the language
of  Canaan  (Isaiah  19,  18),  for  which  Phoenicia  is  a  synonym,
derived   from   Egyptian   Punt  or  Hebrew  Put  (Genesis  10,  6),
see Velikovsky (N. 5) chapter 3, and above Note 4.
            33)   Cf.   TORAH   OF   THE   ALPHABET   (N.  1)  p.arrow73,
and  Ed  Metzler,  Ten  Commandments (N. 3) pp.arrow27, 28, and 31.
If   this  sound  change,  by  which  the  tribes  of  Israel  could  be
distinguished  (Judges  12,  6), was  in  full  swing  some 300 years
after  the  Exodus  from  Egypt  (Judges  11,  26), it may have taken
approximately   another  century  until  all  of  Israel  had  lost  the
ability   to   pronounce   “th”   correctly,  so  that  the  letter  Tzadi
stood for an “s”-sound at the beginning of the Israelite monarchy.


Alphabetical  Order

adopting  the alphabet from Israel after this sound
change   had   to   invent  a  new  letter  for  “th”,
if they needed it.34)
       §  13.   The  acrophonic  letter-names  of the
original alphabet are Hebrew model words chosen
as  examples  for  their  initial sounds.35) The letter
Shin   “tooth”  must  have  been  renamed  in  the
ancient  Hebrew alphabet, because its shape in the
proto-Sinaitic inscriptions  is  so round that it does
not resemble a tooth at all, but two female breasts
(Shadayim)  that  happen  to have the same initial
sound   in  Hebrew.36)  This  assumption  also  ex-
plains  the  name  of  the  letter Tzadi “sidewise”,


            34)  Both  Ugarit  and  Greece  needed  letters  for  their “th”-
sounds.  But  Greek  dropped  Tzadi  (see  above  Note  8),  since  it
did   not   need  another  letter  for  an  “s”-sound  besides  Samekh
and  Shin,  whereas  Ugarit  adapted  Tzadi  to  its  cuneiform script
as  an  “s”-sound  within  the  Peh-Tzadi-Kof-Resh sequence of the
alphabet,  cf.  Cyrus  Herzl Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook (Rome 1965)
pp.  52  and  53.  While  the  Ugaritic  alphabet  invented new letters
for   its   voiced   and   voiceless  “th”-sounds,  the  Greek  alphabet
changed   the   emphatic  Tet  into  its  aspirate  Theta,  although  in
Hebrew,   later   on,  Taw  sometimes    Tet  never    changed  into
a  “th”-sound.
            35)   The   alphabetical   letters  are  highly  abstract  pictures
of   these  model  objects  with  the  letter-names  telling  what  they
are  supposed  to  be.
            36) See TORAH OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1) pp.arrow82 and 83.


Ed  Metzler

for  it consists of a vertical line next to the breasts
marking  the  side  (Tzad)  of the body.37) Another
letter  that was renamed is Nun, originally a snake
(Nachash) represented by a sinus curve. The new
name  honors  bin-Nun,  which is the patronymic
of Joshua, the successor and second in command
after  Moses,  whose  initial  Mem  is followed by
the  letter  Nun.38)
       §  14.  The  choice  of Hebrew model words
depends  on  psychological associations current in
ancient  Israelite  culture.39) Thus, circumcision of
the  foreskin  would  be  out  of  the  question  as


            37)  The  model word Tzadi “lateral” is an adjective formed
out of Tzad “side”, referring to the noun in the ninth consecutive
letter-pair  17./18.  Peh-Tzadi,  and  explaining  that  it  is  a mouth
seen in profile, cf. TORAH OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1) pp. 7275.
Since consecutive letter-pairs supplement and explain each other
(see  above  Note  16),  the original letter-name for Shin helped to
decipher  the  last  letter  in  the  ancient  Hebrew  alphabet 21./22.
Shadayim-Taw  “breasts  and  nipple” (Ibid. pp.arrow7883). It also
helped to turn the arm of the hand (Yod) so as to fit the shoulder
next   to   the  breast,  moving  it  into  a  working  position  at  the
potter’s  disk  of  the  letterarrowTet.
            38)  Cf.  TORAH OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1) pp. 64 and 65.
            39)   A   model   word   current   among  tent-dwellers,  and
frequently  mentioned  in  the  book  of  Exodus  is the sixth letter
in   the   ancient  Hebrew  alphabet  Waw  “hook”,  consisting  of
a  tent-pole  (‘Amud  from ‘Amad “to stand”) and a quarter-circle,
see   TORAH   OF   THE   ALPHABET   (N.  1)  pp.arrow88  and  89.


Alphabetical  Order

a  model  word  for an ancient Philistine as well as
a  modern  Christian,  because  it is foreign to their
cultures,   while   it  would  immediately  pop  into
a  Jewish  mind,  to  whom  it  is  familiar  then  as
now.40)  According  to Genesis 17, 12 the covenant
of circumcision (Berit Milah) has to be performed
on  the  eighth  day  after  the  birth of a son. Con-
sequently,  the  meaning  of  the eighth letter in the
alphabetical  order  (Chet)  refers  to  circumcision
as   in   Chatan   Damim  “a  bloody  bridegroom”
(Exodus   4,   25  and  26).41)  The  other  letter  in
the   fourth   consecutive   pair  (Zayin)  depicts  a
male sexual organ circumcised at its top.42)


            40)  Circumcision,  for  a  Jew,  is  a  happy  family occasion.
This  cultural  difference  may  be  the  reason for the mental block
of   Christian  scholars  shunning  the  real  meaning  of  the  letter
Zayin  “male  sexual organ” (cf. Zanav “tail” and Zonah “whore”),
and  preferring  its  second  meaning  “weapon”.
            41)  Other  related roots are Chatakh “to cut”, and Chatam
“to seal” the covenant (Berit) upon the flesh (Bassar). The place
of  the  letter  Chet  in  the  alphabetical  order  proves  that  it was
numerical   or   alphanumerical  from  the  outset,  cf.  TORAH  OF
THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  p.  120,  and  Note  8  supra.
            42)  See  TORAH  OF  THE ALPHABET (N. 1) pp.arrow8487.
The  letter Zayin is the left half of Chet, as Waw of He, and as F is
an  E  without  its  bottom.  In the original alphabet the letter Chet
had  to  be  turned  into  the  same  position  as  proto-Sinaitic  He,
from   which   it   is  a  modification  (cf.  Notes  10  and  15  supra).


Ed  Metzler

E.  The  Israelite  Origin  of  the  Alphabet
in  the  Torah  of  Moses
from  the  Sinai

       §  15.  If  Mem  and  Nun  were placed at the
top  of  the  second  column  of consecutive letter-
pairs,  because  they  are  the  initials  of  the  two
top   men,   who   founded   the   ancient  Israelite
republic,   the   reason  for  placing  Alef  and  Bet
at  the  top  of  the  alphabetical  order  should  be
that  they  are  the  initials  of  the  first  two  lines
of  the  first  republican  constitution  to  be  hewn
and  written  on  the two stone Tablets of the Law
in   the   original  alphabet  after  its  invention  by
Moses.43)   This  assumption  proved  correct,  for


            43)  Cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET (N. 1) pp.arrow105107.
My approach to the palaeography of the original alphabet was from
comparative  history  of  law,  to  which  it  is  an auxiliary science, if
the  two  Tablets  of  the  Law  of the Torah of Moses from the Sinai
were  the  first  legal  document  in  alphabetical  script, invented for
the  practice  of  law  under  the  Judges  of  Israel: The Rule of Law
begins  with  the  Letter  of  the Law! The Hebrew word ’Alef does
not  only  mean  the  bull,  who  leads a herd of animals, but also the
leader  (’Aluf)  of  a  people  (Exodus  15,  15).  Since  the  people  of
Israel are called the house (Bet) of Jacob (Exodus 19, 3), the letters
Alef-Bet-Mem-Nun  express  the  leadership  of  Moses  and Joshua.


Alphabetical  Order

it   was   the  key  to  my  discovering  the  three-
dimensional structure of the Ten Commandments
by   telling   me  the  number  of  letters  per  line
on  the  original  inscription.44)  It  was  written  in
alternating  directions  as  suggested  by  the  bou-
   pattern  of  my  alphabetical  table.45)
       §  16.  The  proportions  of my didactic table
of  alphabetical  letters,  arranged on a rectangular
area of six by four, turned out to be identical with
the  proportions  of  the  Tablets  of  the  Law  of
the Torah of  Moses  from  the Sinai, which were


            44)   See  Ed  Metzler,  Ten  Commandments  (N.  3)  p.arrow14.
The   principle   of  reciprocity  of  consecutive  letter-pairs  had  to
apply  also  to  the  two  top  letters  in the alphabetical order (Ibid.
Notearrow10),  after observing it in the rest of the alphabet (cf. Notes
11, 16, 28, 37,  and  42  supra).  Since  the text of the Ten Command-
ments  begins  with  the  letter  Alef,  it  was  not  a  far-fetched idea
to  look  for  the  first  Bet,  which  is  number  33, and the first letter
in  the second line. The commander-in-chief of the troops (’Elohey
,  comparable  to  the  Roman  “praetor” (Ibid. Notearrow44),
inscribed  (Chakak) the Tablets of the Law with 10 lines (Devarim
or   Sefirot)   of   32   letters   each   (Ketivot,   correct  for  Netivot),
cf.  Sefer  Yetzirah,  chapter  1,  no.  1.  The Hebrew word ’El (short
for  ’Ayil)  does  not only mean the ram, who leads a herd of sheep,
but  also  the  leader  of  human  beings (Exodus 15, 15), who walks
in  front  of  them  (cf.  Latin  “prae-itor”).
            45)  The  turning-quaternity (above Note 24) corresponds to
the   turning-letters   on  the  Tablets  of  the  Law,  cf.  TORAH  OF
THE ALPHABET (N. 1) p.arrow101. The alternating writing directions
are  exercised  within the square four-letter blocks (above Note 18).


Ed  Metzler

one  cubit  by  one  and a half, fitting exactly into
the  width  of  the  Ark  of  the  Covenant.46) The
original  alphabet  may  have been painted on the
wood  of  this box imposing its measurements on
the   arrangement  of  letters.  If  it  was  painted
on  its  bottom,  the  free  space  of  half  a cubit
between  the  tablets  would have been sufficient
to  see  one  column  of  consecutive  letter-pairs
at  a  time.47)  Byarrowmoving  the  tablet  sideways,
the  second  column  would  become visible, and
the  two  oblong four-letter blocks could be seen,
when   turning  the  tablet  by  ninety  degrees.48)


            46)   Cf.   Ed   Metzler,   Ten   Commandments  (N.  3)  p.  18.
If  my  didactic  table  of  alphabetical  letters  were  written  on the
Tablets  of  the  Law,  one  schoolday  would  require  one sixth of
a  tablet,  which  is  one  Omer  (Ibid.  p.  22).  Hence  counting  the
Omer  from Easter to Pentecost means counting the days, because
a  schoolday  equals  one  Omer  according to the geometry of the
Torah  of  Moses  (Ibid.  Note  42).
            47)  Reading  one  column  after  the  other yields the alpha-
numerical  sequence  of  letters,  cf.  TORAH OF THE ALPHABET
(N.  1)  pp.  31  and  120.  The  empty space of half a cubit between
the  tablets,  which  are  0.1 cubit thick and 1.5 cubits long, is three
Omers,  and  one Omer is 2.22 liters, if one cubit measures 44.6 cm,
see  Ed  Metzler,  Mosaical  Metrology  (N.  1)  Notesarrow9  and 23.
            48) During transportation the empty spaces were filled with
the  broken  tablets: An Omer full of 10 Manah stones of 100 Beka
of  6.0  grams each was wrapped in a little fleece (Tzintzenet), and
laid   in   front   of   the   first  tablet  (YaHUH),  cf.  Exodus  16,  33.


Alphabetical  Order

       §  17.  A  revolution  such  as  the Exodus of
the  Hebrew  slaves from Egypt in 1441 B. C. E.,
which  brought  to  an  end  the  Middle Kingdom
and  the  pyramid  age,  was indispensable for the
introduction   of  the  original  alphabet.49)  It  was
not  enough  to  realize  that a set of some 20 odd
phonetic  symbols  would  do to write a language,
as  many  Egyptian scholars of the time may have
concluded  from  their  system  of one-consonant
hieroglyphs,  but  it  took  a  tremendous effort to
throw  over  board  the  Egyptian  culture  and its
hieroglyphic   script.50)   The   exploited  pyramid-


            49)   In   this   century   the   Turkish   revolution  resulted  in
the   substitution   of   the   Roman   for   the  Arabic  alphabet.  The
correct  dating  of  the  Exodus  at  the  end of the Middle Kingdom,
which   is  several  centuries  off  the  generally  accepted  Egyptian
chronology,   is   the  great  merit  of  Immanuel  Velikovsky  (N.  5)
chapters   1   and   2.   It   is  confirmed  by  the  biblical  description
of   the   building  materials  used  in  the  construction  of  the  last
pyramids  in  Fayoum  (Pithom)  as  well  as  by  the  geography of
the  Exodus  route,  which  does  not  lead  to  the  Red  Sea  unless
the  point  of  departure  was  far  enough  south  of  the  Nile delta,
cf.  Ed  Metzler,  Mosaical  Metrology  (N.  1) Notearrow14, and Idem,
Ten  Commandments  (N.  3)  Notearrow36.
            50) Without this effort, hieroglyphs continued being written
until  the  Egyptians  (Copts)  adopted  Christianity  and  the Greek
alphabet,  followed  a  few  centuries  later  by Islam and the Arabic
alphabet. Other examples for conservative spelling are English, and
Japanese  combining Chinese characters with a phonetic syllabary.


Ed  Metzler

builders  of the people of Israel, who were fed up
with  sacrificing  their  lives  to  the  death  cult of
the  pharaohs,  must  have  been  only  too willing
to  replace  the  clumsy script of this hated culture
by a more efficient way of writing.51)
       §  18.  The  alphabet  is  one  of  the greatest
cultural  achievements  of  mankind,  but its origin
seemed to be a mystery forever. A long time after
the  decipherment  of  cuneiform and hieroglyphic
writing,  the  meaning  of many letters in our very
own   script   remained   an  unsolved  problem.52)


            51)  Learning  how  to  read  and  write a complicated script,
such  as  Egyptian hieroglyphs or Chinese characters, takes many
years  of  study, which is an aristocratic luxury and a costly waste
of  time.  The  simplicity of alphabetical writing, on the other hand,
which  can  be  taught in a one-week course of four lessons a day,
makes  literacy  and  learning  available  to  everybody. Instead of
an  aristocracy  of  priests,  the revolution of the Torah “teaching”
of Moses aimed at democracy by educating a “kingdom of priests”
(Exodus   19,   6),   wishing   “that  all  the  people  were  prophets”
(Numbers 11, 29).
            52)  The  alphabet  is  a  didactic  system  more  geometrico
arranged   by   the   geometrical   mind  of  a  pyramid-builder.  The
mason’s   way   of   thinking  represented  the  letter  Bet  “house”
in   cross-section   by   omitting   the   vertical   line  to  the  left  of
the  square,  that  stood  for  a  house  in  proto-Sinaitic script and
in  Egyptian  hieroglyphs.  A  law-abiding  court-officer  under the
Judges  of  Israel  had  to  add  the prescribed railing on top of the
flat roof (Deuteronomy 22, 8), which later became the second floor
of  B,  cf. TORAH OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1) pp. 16 andarrow9297.


Alphabetical  Order

Anti-Jewish  prejudice  prevented  the  most likely
candidate  for  the  invention  of alphabetic writing
from  being  taken  seriously  into consideration.53)
By   focusing   my   attention   on  the  systematic
aspects   of   the   alphabetical   order  along  with
its   phonetic,  graphic,  and  semantic  aspects  of
letter-names,  I  succeeded in restoring the original
alphabet,  as taught (Torah) by Moses in the Sinai.
In   every   detail   the  alphabet  bears  the  highly
individual  fingerprint  of  the  genius of the people
of  Israel  who  conceived  it.54)


            53)  One  of  the  earliest detractors is Tacitus, Annals, XI, 14,
twisting   the  account  of  Herodotus  (N.  4)  to  the  effect  that  the
Phoenicians   palmed   off   the   alphabet   as   their  own  invention,
while  they  allegedly  received  it  from  Egypt.  Hieroglyphic  script,
however,   is  incontestably  non-alphabetic.  An  equally  ridiculous
detraction,  based  on  Aryan  chauvinism,  claims  that  the decisive
step   was   the   introduction   of   vowel-sounds  in  the  Greek  and
Roman  alphabets  by  changing  ’Alef  into A, He’ into E, Yod into I,
‘Ayin  into  O,  and  Waw  into  Y  or  U. Due to the relativity of what
is  phonetically  significant,  these  apparent  improvements  in  non-
Semitic   languages   are   disadvantages  in  Hebrew,  for  which  the
original  alphabet  was  conceived.
            54) Besides circumcision of the foreskin (cf. Notearrow40 supra),
another  distinctively  Israelite  sign is the day of rest (Shabat) after
six  days  of  work  (Exodus  31,  17).  The  curriculum of the alphabet
ends (Kol Alef-Bet) after six schooldays (above Note 19), as heaven
and  earth  were  finished  (Genesis  2,  13).    The  style  of writing
depends   largely   on   the   materials  and  tools,  rather  circular  on
sand,    more    angular    on   stone,   and   cuneiform   on   wet   clay.


Ed  Metzler

Solomonic  Hebrew  Alphabet  
Solomonic Hebrew Alphabet


Alphabetical  Order

Original  Mosaical  Alphabet  
Original Mosaical Alphabet


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arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 3 = ISBN 3-924448-05-1 
Discovering   the   Mosaical   Roots   of  Kabbalah

arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 4 = ISBN 3-924448-06-X 
Discovering  the  Israelite  Identity  of the Pyramid

arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 5 = ISBN 3-924448-07-8 
Conflict  of  Laws in the Israelite Dynasty of Egypt

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 1 = ISBN 3-924448-09-4 
The   Impact   of   Israel   on  Western  Philosophy

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 2 = ISBN 3-924448-10-8 
The  Mosaical  Roots of European Musical Theory

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 3 = ISBN 3-924448-11-6 
On  Mosaical  Matrixes  and  the Metzler Formula

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 4 = ISBN 3-924448-12-4 
        “The    author    attempts   to   reconstruct   the
inscription   on   the   Tablets   of   the  Law,  and  to
prove  the  priority  and  centrality  of Hebrew script
in  the  world  history  of  writing.”

Bibliographical   Quarterly   of   thearrowJewish   National
and   University   Library   in   Jerusalem,   Israel,
VOL.   60,   NO.   12   (1986)   pp.   28788,   *304547.

ISBN  3-924448-05-1
Brazen Sea

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