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Mosaical Metrology · 3D Decalogue · 2D Alphabet · Kabbalah · Pyramids · Israelite Dynasty · Philosophy · Musical Theory · Metzler Formula · Mosaical Religions

Israel built the pyramids in Egypt from Imhotep-Joseph to the Exodus.

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Discovering   the   Israelite   Identity   of
the   Pyramid   Builders*

by Dr. Ed Metzler

Dr. Metzler-Moziani (Photo), The Metzler Formula

       §  1.  A  good  place  for  discoveries is where
nobody  else  has  been  looking,  in  the  mistaken
belief  that  nothing  can  be  found  there anyhow.
Obviously,  no  one  but  me  expected  to find the
original   alphabet   in    the  Sinai  at  the  time  of
the  Exodus  of  the  Hebrew  slaves  from  Egypt,
which  many  scholars  believe  to  have happened
around  1270  B. C. E.,  because  Ugarit    which
is   almost   unanimously   believed  to  have  been

            *Dedicated    to    the   President   of   the   State   of    ISRAEL
Chaim  Herzog,  who  in  1985  called  the  first  issue of  this  volume
“thought-provoking”,    and   thereby   encouraged   its   completion.
[See  Professor  Dr.  Rivka  Ulmer,  Discovering  Mosaistics, Israel’s
Egyptian   roots      a   Book   Review,   in   Bulletin   of   the  Israeli
Academic   Center   in   Cairo  ·  no.  18  ·  January   1994,   pp.   2426
“. . .  Metzler  even  goes  one  step  further  (than  Velikovsky): King
Solomon of the Bible is the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmosis II and King
David  is  Thutmosis  I.  The  Thutmosids,  claims  Metzler, represent
thearrowIsraelite dynasty of  Egypt.” (p. 25).]


Ed  Metzler

destroyed   in   the  same  century    already  used
the   alphabetical  order  for  almost  two  centuries
prior  to  its  final destruction. Therefore, it seemed
unbelievable,  when  I  published  my  discovery of
the   Israelite   origin  of  the  alphabet  on  Simchat
   of   1983  in  the  first  German  edition  of
my book entitled “TORAH OF THE ALPHABET,
Reconstruction  of  the  2  Tablets  of Moses in the
Original   Alphabet
”,   which   I  wrote  under  the
pen  name  ELIYAHU  MOZIANI.1)
       §  2.  The  triangular  relation  between Israel,
Egypt,   and   Ugarit   was   convincingly  analyzed
by   Immanuel   Velikovsky,  who  discovered  that
ancient   Egyptian   chronology   is   wrong,   being


            1) Eliyahu Moziani,arrowTORAH OF THE ALPHABET, Recon-
struction   of   the  2  Tablets  of  Moses  in  the  Original  Alphabet
translated   from   the   2nd   German   edition  (1984)  by  the  author,
2nd   English   ed.   (1985)   ISBN   3-924448-02-7   (hardcover),   pub-
lished   by   Baalschem   Press,   and   selling   for   US-Dollars  12.95
(hereinafter  cited  asarrowTORAH   OF   THE  ALPHABET).  Before
the   cuneiform   alphabet-tablets  were  found  in  Ugarit  after  1948,
professor  Hubert  Grimme,  an  expert of proto-Sinaitic inscriptions,
had  already  expressed the opinion that “the Decalogue was one of
the   very   first   monuments   in   alphabetic   script”   (Ibid.   p.   9).
Trying   to   stay  out  of  chronological  controversies  as  much  as
possible,   I   originally   used   a  tentative  Exodus  date  of  around
1270  B.  C.  E.   in  the  previous  German  editions of thearrowTORAH


Israelite  Identity

generally  misdated  some five centuries too early.2)
In   his   excellent   book  “From  Exodus  to  King
Akhnaton”   he  proved,  more  than  a  generation
ago,  that  the  last  two  centuries of Ugarit before
its   final  destruction  are  contemporary  with  the
first   two   centuries   of   the  Israelite  monarchy
(ca.  1030830  B. C. E.),  and  both of them with
eighteenth-dynasty   Egypt.3)   If  the  biblical  date
of  the  Exodus  (1441  B. C. E.) is correct, Ugarit
adopted   its  culture  such  as  the  alphabet  from
Israel   over   four   centuries   after  its  invention


OF  THE  ALPHABET.  But  once  you  know  why  the  alphabetical
order   is   like   it  is,  you  also  knowarrowwho  copied  it  from  whom,
and  knowing  who  was  first in time means getting into chronology.
            2)  After  discovering  the  didactic system of the alphabetical
order,  which  bears  the  highly  individual  fingerprint of its Israelite
origin,  I  could  not  help  the conclusion that Ugarit adopted it from
Israel,  cf.  Ed  Metzler, Discovering the Two-Dimensional Structure
of  the  Alphabetical  Order,  (Herborn  1987)  Notearrow5.
            3)   Boycotting   this   excellent   book   is   a   most   shameful
scandal   for   the   sciences   and  scientists  involved,  in  particular
William   F.   Albright,  whose  influence  played  an  important  role
in  suppressing  it  from  academic  discussion,  cf. Alfred de Grazia,
The   Velikovsky   Affair   (German   1979)   p.  49.  Since  it  was  first
published   in   1952,   the  time  is  up:  I would  have  liked  to  think
that   we   live   in   a   more   enlightened   age  than  the  one  which
mistreated  Galileo  Galilei,  but  we  live  in the Auschwitz century,
and   are   reminded   of   it   by   the   way  post-Auschwitz  scholars
obstructed science in dealing with Israel and Immanuel Velikovsky,
see  below  text  accompanying  Notearrow36.


Ed  Metzler

in   the   Sinai.4)   This   places  the  Exodus  at  the
end  of  the  Middle Kingdom and the pyramid age,
suggesting   that   the  father  of  pyramid  building
Imhotep  is  identical  with  Joseph.5) 

A. The Egyptian Tradition of Identifying
the Father of Pyramid Building
Imhotep with Joseph

       §  3.  Legal  history  is  part of general history,
and  important  legal  finds  such  as  the  complete
reconstruction   of   the   Tablets   of  the  Law  of
the   Torah   of   Moses  in  the  original  alphabet,
based upon my discoveries of the two-dimensional
structure  of  the  alphabetical  order and the three-
dimensional  structure of the Ten Commandments,


            4)   Raphael   Giveon,   The   Impact   of   Egypt  on  Canaan
(1978)   pp.  10  and  56,  who  is  right  in  dating  the  proto-Sinaitic
inscriptions  and  the  invention  of  alphabetic  writing  to  twelfth-
dynasty   Egypt,   which   ended  in  1441  B.  C.  E.,  and  not  some
350  years  earlier  (cf.  also  Notearrow27 infra).
            5) On Imhotep-Joseph see already Ed Metzler, Discovering
the  System  of  Mosaical  Metrology,  (Herborn  1985)  Notearrow14.


Israelite  Identity

often  make  corrections  of  historical  chronology
necessary,   just  like  incorrect  chronologies  may
prevent  discoveries  from  being  made.6)  Imhotep
and  Joseph  have  always  been identified by local
tradition   in   Egypt.7)  This  was  carefully  traced
back in the recent work of a German Egyptologist,
who,   nevertheless,   fails   to  even  consider  the
possibility  of  their  actual  identity  on account of
the   tremendous   time  gap  in  accepted  chrono-
logy.8)  As  a rule of thumb, however, place names
and  local  traditions  usually  give  broad hints for
correct  identifications.


            6)   See   TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  pp.  48  and
100107,   giving   a   preliminary   report  of  the  final  results  (Ibid.
p.  19);  as  well  as Ed Metzler, Discovering the Three-Dimensional
Structure   of   the  Ten  Commandments,  (Herborn  1986)  Note  10;
and  Idem,  Alphabetical  Order  (N.  2)  Note  44.
            7) To this very day the Joseph River canal (Baher Youssouf)
recalls the name of the favorite son of Israel, who became the great
prime  minister  and  chief  architect of pharaoh Zoser saving Egypt
from  starvation.  Likewise,  his  name  stuck to the so-called Prison
of   Joseph  (Siggen  Youssouf),  a  former  Imhotep  temple  (below
Note  8),  that  was  destroyed  by  using its stones for building the
citadel  of  Cairo,  as  Ibn  Gubair  reports.
            8)  Cf.  Dietrich  Wildung,  Imhotep  und  Amenhotep,  Gott-
werdung  im  alten  Ägypten  (München 1977) p. 122, who assumes
that  Imhotep  was  supplanted  by Joseph (Youssouf ibn Ya‘qoub)
“at  an undefinable point in history” with the advent of Christianity
or Islam, but ignores completely the large Greek-speakingarrowJewish


Ed  Metzler

       § 4. Imhotep and Joseph is one and the same
historical  personality  shared  by  both Israel and
Egypt,  who  have been neighbors throughout the
ages, as France and Germany have Charlemagne
(Latin  “Carolus  Magnus”)  or  “Karl der Große”
in  common,  who  connects  their  histories.9)  As
Charles is French for German Karl, Joseph is the
Hebrew  equivalent  of  Imhotep.  For the original
form of Joseph is Jehoseph spelled IHOSEP, and
Imhotep may also be spelled IHOTEP, so that the


population  of  Ptolemaic  Egypt, for whom Ptolemy II Philadelphus
had  the  biblical  story  of  Joseph  translated  by  the  Septuagint in
the  first  half  of  the  third  century  before  the Christian era. Hence
the  identification  of  Joseph  with Imhotep in Christian and Muslim
literature   (Idem   pp.   110123)  must  date  back  to  the  Ptolemies,
who  promoted  his  cult  by  building  temples  for  Imhotep-Joseph
near  the  Serapeum  north  of  Sakkara,  and  on  the island of Philae
(Idem  pp.  48  and  149172).
            9)    As   an   integrating   figure   Imhotep   was   welcome   in
Ptolemaic   Egypt,   whose   policy  was  directed  at  assimilating  its
Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian populations, for Egyptians worshipped
him   as   the   father   of   pyramid   building,  Jews  remembered  him
under  the  name  of Joseph as the favorite son of Israel, and Greeks
identified  him  as  Imouthes  with  Aesculapius  or Serapis (Talmud,
Av.  Zar.  43a)  in  his  eponymous  temple  near  the Serapeum. This
gave  rise  to  Hermetic  philosophy,  correctly tracing the history of
Greek  arts and sciences to Solomonic Israel and its Torah of Moses
from  the  Sinai,  which  in  turn  leads  back  to  Joseph  or  Imhotep,
a   student   of  Hermes  Trismegistus  or  Thoth,  the  moon  god  of
wisdom,  who  had  his  temple  at Hermoupolis Magna between the
Nile  and  the  Joseph  River  canal,  cf.  Wildung  (N.  8)  pp. 88109.


Israelite  Identity

only  remaining  phonetic  difference  is the dental
fricative   “s”  instead  of  the  dental  plosive  “t”,
which  is  as  slight  a  sound  change  in  linguistic
history  as Karl becoming Charles.10) But not only
the  name is identical, also the story of Imhotep or
Joseph  from  the  sources  of third-dynasty Egypt
down   to   the  present  Muslim  era  matches  his
biblical   story,  as  retold  in  the  twelfth  sura  of
the  Koran.11)
       § 5. Among the children of Israel the favorite
of  his  father Jacob, Joseph was sold into slavery
by  his  brothers  (Genesis  37).  In  Egypt he rose
to   the   rank  of  prime  minister  under  pharaoh
Zoser  by  interpreting  his  dreams,  and  advising
him  how  to  handle  a seven years’ famine.12) He


            10)  While  an  “h”  between  vowels  is frequently elided in
Hebrew,  it  is retained in Psalms 81, 6 reading IHOSEP (Jehoseph)
instead  of  Joseph.  The inscription on the sixth-dynasty mastaba
tomb   of   Uni  at  Abydos  mentions  the  “IHOTEP  Gate”  in  the
Memphis  area,  where  Imhotep  is  spelled without the usual “m”,
cf.  Wildung  (N.  8)  pp.  15  and  16.
            11) According to a third-dynasty inscription on the base of
a  statue  of  pharaoh  Zoser,  his  prime minister and high priest of
Heliopolis  Imhotep  held  the  same position to which Joseph had
been  appointed  (Genesis 41, 4045), see Wildung (N. 8) pp. 510.
            12)  Cf.  Genesis  41,  139.


Ed  Metzler

was  married  by  the  pharaoh with Asenath, the
daughter  of  the  high  priest of Heliopolis “On”,
whom   he   succeeded  (Genesis  41,  45).13)  As
chief  architect  Joseph  built  for  pharaoh Zoser
the  step pyramid in Sakkara near Memphis, and
was remembered and worshipped as the inventor
of  stone  architecture,  especially  in  his  temple
north  of Sakkara known as the Prison of Joseph
(Siggen Youssouf)
.14) The Ptolemaic famine stele
at  Sehel  is  conspicuous  by  the similarity of its
text  with  the  story  of  Joseph,  as  told  in  the
Bible  (Genesis  3950),  identifying  his  god  El
(short   for   Ayil  “ram”)  with  the  ram-headed
Egyptian  god  Chnum.15)


            13) Applying the same sound change as in Imhotep-Joseph
to  the  name  of  his  wife Asenath yields “Athena”, and, indeed, it
contains   the  name  of  the  Egyptian  goddess  Neith,  commonly
identified  with  the  Greek  goddess  of  wisdom,  a  fitting  spouse
(Ba‘alat  “Pallas”)  for Imhotep-Joseph after his deification as god
of  wisdom  and son of the Memphitic Ptah (Greek “Hephaestus”),
whence  the  Hebrew Pessach “Passover” holidays (Exodus 34, 25)
in  remembrance  of  Israel’s  survival  and  liberation  in a volcanic
catastrophe  (cf.  Notearrow27  infra).
            14)   The  grave  of  Imhotep-Joseph  is  in  Shechem,  Israel,
where he was reburied (Joshua 24, 32), cf. Ed Metzler, Discovering
the   Mosaical   Roots   of   Kabbalah,   (Herborn  1988)  Notearrow35.
            15)  See  Wildung (N. 8) pp. 149152. Joseph’s god “L” (El)


Israelite  Identity

B.  The  Greek  Tradition  of  Identifying  the
Builders  of  the  Labyrinth  with  the
12 Tribes (Dodecarchs) of Israel

       § 6. The large Greek-speaking Jewish popu-
lation  of Ptolemaic Egypt, who caused the Bible
tranlation  of  the Septuagint, as well as the Jews
who  came  to  Egypt with the prophet Jeremiah
after   the   destruction  of  the  First  Temple  in
Jerusalem,  and  later  as  members of the Jewish
military  colony  of  Elephantine,  who  defended
the  southern frontier of the Persian empire from
a  fort  near Asswan, where their Aramaic papyri
were found, must have been well informed about
the  contributions  of  their ancestors to Egyptian
culture.16)  They  were  probably  interviewed  by
Herodotus  about  what  he  had  seen on his trip


may  be  rendered  in Egyptian, which has no “L”, either by trans-
literation  as  “Re”  like London becomes Rondon in Japanese
or by literal translation as Chnum “potter” or “Creator”, depicted
as a ram (El) working at a potter’s lathe (Yotzer).
            16) At the beginning of the Roman period, Egyptian Jewry
is  estimated  atarrow1/8 of the entire population, cf. E. Bickermann,
in the Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 1 (1928) at 1119.


Ed  Metzler

while  travelling  up  the  Nile  as  far south as the
outpost  of  Elephantine.17)  What  impressed  him
more  than  the  Greek  temples and the pyramids
was the labyrinth in front of the Hawara pyramid,
and  the  huge  man-made  lake  which drains the
irrigation  canals  in  the  oasis  of  Fayoum.18)
       § 7. The builders of the labyrinth, Herodotus
was  told,  were  the  twelve  “Dodecarchs”, who
founded  a  federal  republic  with  a  constitution
after   their   liberation  from  Egypt,  and  whose
dodecarchy  ended  in  monarchy,  when  one  of
them  became  king  of  Egypt, who drank out of
a  brazen  vessel  in the temple.19) The mysterious
Dodecarchs,  who  built the Hawara pyramid and
its  famous  labyrinth  for pharaoh Amenemhet III
at  the  end  of  the  Middle Kingdom, can neither


            17)  Around  460  B.  C.  E.  Herodotus  visited  Elephantine,
and  turned  back  at  the  first  cataract  (Histories, II, 29). He inter-
viewed  Egyptians and other inhabitants of the land (Ibid., II, 147),
namely  the  Jews of Elephantine whose papyri date from this time.
            18)   Idem,   Histories,   II,   148150.  See  below  Notearrow23.
            19)  Ibid.  Herodotus  reports  faithfully  what  he  was  told,
without  understanding  that  his  informers were talking about the
liberation of the twelve tribes of Israel. Manetho afterwards heard
the  same  story,  and  understood  it  even  less (cf. Note 22 infra).


Israelite  Identity

be  traced  in  Egyptian  nor  in  Greek  history,20)
   but  in  the  history  of  the  people  of  Israel,
whose  standard  epithet  in  the  Greek  language
is   the  ; Twelve-Tribe  Republic,  long  after  the
tribal  structure  had  disappeared.  Evidently, the
Greek-speaking   Jews  of  Elephantine  used  the
same  language as Saint Paul did some 500 years
later, when he called the twelve “Dodecarchs” of
Herodotus “our Dodecaphylon” or Twelve-Tribe
Nation  (The  Acts  26,  7).21)


            20)  This  is  the  negative  result of a recent monograph on
the  subject  by  Kimball  Armayor,  Herodotus’  Autopsy  of  the
Fayoum:  Lake  Moeris  and  the  Labyrinth  of Egypt (Amsterdam
1985)  p.  134.  However,  a  serious  scholarly shortcoming of this
book  is  its  omission  of  a  very pertinent work of Graeco-Jewish
literature known as the New Testament with its “twelve apostles”
corresponding  to  the  Twelve  Tribes  of Israel (Saint Luke 6, 13;
and  James  1,  1),  renowned  for  their  Exodus from Egypt, which
is  mentioned  by  Herodotus  (Histories, VII, 89), when he speaks
of  the  Jews  correctly  as  those  Phoenicians  who, by their own
account   (Haggadah),  migrated  to  Canaan  from  the  Red  Sea,
cf.  Ed  Metzler,  Alphabetical  Order  (N.  2)  Note  4.
            21)  The  breastplate  of  Agamemnon  with  its  “12  bands
of  gold”  should  have  reminded  Armayor  (N.  20)  p.  63  of the
breastplate   of   the   high   priest   in   Jerusalem  with  ist  twelve
precious  stones,  one  for  each  of  the  Twelve  Tribes  of Israel
(Exodus   39,   814).   As   this   piece  of  Homeric  jewellery  was
styled  after  an  Israelite  prototype,  so  the  constitution  of  the
Ionian  Dodecapolis  must  have  had  the  federal  system  of  the
Twelve   Tribes  or  Dodecarchs  of  Israel  as  its  example,  since
we   learn   from   Herodotus   (Histories,  V,  5861)  that  besides


Ed  Metzler

       §  8.  The pyramids were built by the people
of   Israel,   by  its  twelve  tribes  known  as  the
Dodecarchs “twelve rulers” or “dynasts”, whence
the  “twelve  dynasties”  of  the pyramid age, and
after   their   Exodus  at  the  end  of  the  twelfth
dynasty  no more pyramids were built in Egypt.22)
This   is  confirmed  by  Josephus  Flavius,  who
writes  in  his  Jewish  Antiquities  (II,  9) that the
people  of Israel suffered from building pyramids
and  irrigation  ditches,  which fits the description
of  the  last  pyramids  of the Middle Kingdom in
Fayoum,  irrigated  by  diverting  water  from the
Nile  into the Baher Youssouf canal.23) Herodotus


the ancient Hebrew alphabet many arts and sciences were brought
to   Greece   from   Phoenicia,   which  is  Solomonic  Israel,  whose
Mosaical  constitution  Hecataeus  of  Abdera seems to have held
in  high  esteem.  The  breastplate  was  given  to  Agamemnon  by
Cinyras  (Hebrew  Kinnor  “lyre”  or  David’s  “harp”),  the son of
Apollo  (Hebrew  ha-Ba‘al  “the  husband”)  and  father of Adonis
(Hebrew  Adon  “lord”),  who  came  from  Israel  to Cyprus, where
he  founded  the  city  of  Paphos.
            22)  A connection between the “Dodecarchs” of Herodotus
and the “twelve dynasties” of Manetho was already suspected by
Francis  Llewellyn  Griffith,  as  quoted  by  Armayor (N. 20) p. 62.
            23)   Comparable   to  Salton  Sea  in  the  Imperial  Valley  of
California  irrigated  by  the Colorado River canal, the Fayoum lake
was   created  by  making  Nile  water  flow  into  a  natural  sink  or
depression  below  sea  level.


Israelite  Identity

expressly  mentions  the  federal  Constitution of
the  Dodecarchs  or  twelve  tribes of the ancient
Republic  of  Israel,  that  was  abolished  by the
monarchy  of  King  Solomon, who is known for
the  Brazen  Sea  in his temple, and for marrying
the  daughter  of  the  King  of  Egypt.24) 

C.  The  Hebrew  Tradition  of  Identifying
Hatshepsut  with  Solomon’s  Wife,
the  Queen  of  Sheba

       §  9.  Under  Egyptian  inheritance law King
Solomon succeeded the pharaoh whose daughter
he  married,  as  Joseph or Imhotep became high
priest  of  Heliopolis by marrying the daughter of


            24)  Cf.  Herodotus,  Histories,  II, 151; Ed Metzler, Roots of
Kabbalah  (N.  14)  Note  45;  and  text  accompanying Notes 4750
infra.  According  to  Saint  Augustine  (De  Civitate  Dei,  XVIII, 8)
Moses  was a contemporary of Prometheus, to whom Greek mytho-
logy  ascribes  the  invention  of the alphabet and the formation of
man  out  of  dirt.  Both  are identical, since stripping pro-Methe-us
of  his  Aryan  prefix  and  suffix,  and  changing  his “th” into Shin
(below  Note  51)  yields  Mosheh. Hence the 12 Titans, children of
Heaven and Earth, and the 12 tribes of Israel (Asherah El) are also


Ed  Metzler

his  predecessor.25)  Unlike  Egypt,  the  people  of
Israel  have  a highly reliable chronology, because
they   have   commemorated   their  Exodus  from
Egypt  in  the  spring  of  every  subsequent  year,
and  counted  the  years  since  the  foundation  of
their  republic.26)  The  era  of the ancient Republic
of  Israel,  which  was  still  in  use  at the time of
King   Solomon,   who   began  to  build  the  First
Temple  in  Jerusalem  in  the  fourth  year  of  his
reign (961 B. C. E.) or 480 years after the Exodus
(1441  B.  C.  E.),  is  as  accurate as counting the
Greek Olympiads or the years after the foundation
of   Rome.   Thus,  the  end  of  the  pyramid  age
or   of   the   twelfth  dynasty  in  Egypt  must  be
dated  at  1441  B.  C.  E.27)


identical,  imagined  to  be giants because of the pyramids they built.
            25)  On  the  resulting  incestuous  marriages  cf. Note 48 infra.
            26)   See   Ed   Metzler,   Ten  Commandments  (N.  6)  Note  5.
            27)  The  Exodus  of the Hebrew slaves took advantage of the
turmoil created by geological activity such as the volcanic explosion
of  the  Greek  island  of  Thera  (Santorini)  in  the  mid-15th  century
(1441  B.  C.  E.)  as  well  as  earthquakes  like  the  one  which raised
the  Nilometer  at  Semna  after  the  reign  of pharaoh Amenemhet III,
that  made  the  Red  Sea  crossing  of  the  people of Israel possible,
cf.    Immanuel    Velikovsky,    From    Exodus   to   King   Akhnaton
(German  1981)  pp.  66  and  67.


Israelite  Identity

       §  10.  The  Judges  of  Israel from Moses to
Samuel  are  contemporary  with the second inter-
mediate   period   between  the  Middle  Kingdom
and  the  New  Kingdom  in  Egypt,  as proven by
Immanuel  Velikovsky.28) The remarkable fact that
Egypt  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Bible  after  the
Exodus,  until  King  Saul defeated the Amalekites
in  the  wadi  of  El  Arish  (Avaris) on the border
between  Israel  and  Egypt,  is explained by their
identity  with  the  Hyksos,  who  terrorized  both
countries   from  their  border  capital  during  this
period.29)  After  the defeat of their mutual enemy,
the   New   Kingdom   began  in  Egypt  with  the
eighteenth  dynasty,  while  Israel  also became a
monarchy.   In  this  way,  Immanuel  Velikovsky
already  arrived  at  identifying Queen Hatshepsut


            28)  See  Immanuel  Velikovsky  (N.  27)  chapter  2.  The final
transformation   of   the   ancient  Israelite  republic  into  a  despotic
monarchy   after   more   than  400  years  was  due  to  the  fact  that
Israel became too big and ungovernable after the defeat of its major
enemy,   like   Rome  after  the  defeat  of  Carthage,  cf.  Ed  Metzler,
Roots  of  Kabbalah  (N.  14)  Notes  42  and  43.
            29)  The  Amalekites are descendants of Israel’s twin brother
(Genesis  36,  12),  and  their  name  ‘a-Maleq is a dialectal variant of
Hebrew  ha-Malekh  “king”,  translated  into Egyptian as “Hyksos”.


Ed  Metzler

of   Egypt  with  the  so-called  Queen  of  Sheba,
who  visited King Solomon in Israel, leaving open
her  relation  to  his  wife.30)
       §  11.  The  so-called  Queen of Sheba might
be  the  visiting sister of King Solomon’s Egyptian
wife,  as  Velikovsky  incidentally  assumed,  or
even  be  identical  with  her.31) The namelessness
of  both  is  incompatible  with  the  historicity  of
the   biblical   account,  which  is  turned  into  an
Arabian  fairy-tale by Christian and Muslim inter-
pretation.32)   In   Jewish   tradition  Sheba  is  not


            30)  See  Immanuel  Velikovsky  (N.  27)  chapter  3, who fails
to   analyze   the   family   relationship   of   both.   Since   they  were
members  of  the  same  royal  family,  they  must  have  known each
other,  cf.  Ed Metzler, Ten Commandments (N. 6) Notearrow11, where
I   first   observed  the  identity  of  King  Solomon’s  Egyptian  wife
with  Queen  Hatshepsut  of  Egypt.
            31)  In  an  incidental  remark  Immanuel Velikovsky, Peoples
of  the  Sea  (German  1978)  p.  129,  expresses  the  view  that  both
werearrowsisters  without  giving  reasons  for  it.
            32)   Cf.   James   B.   Pritchard   (ed.),   Solomon  and  Sheba
(London    1974),    Introduction    pp.   7   and   12,   who   calls   her
“a   nameless   queen  of  the  Arabian  kingdom  of  Sheba”,  whose
namelessness   “makes  appropriate  the  designation  of  this  story
as a fanciful oriental legend”. However, her apparent namelessness
is   non-existent,   if   Sheba   is   not  a  geographical  term,  but  her
proper   name,   cf.   Lou   H.   Silberman,  The  Queen  of  Sheba  in
Judaic   Tradition   (Ibid.   p.  67).  In  this  case,  she  is  none  other
than  King  Solomon’s  Egyptian wife, whose introduction by name
must  be  expected  next  after  the  preceding  chapters  in the Bible.


Israelite  Identity

a   geographical,   but  a  proper  name,  and  from
Josephus   Flavius   we   learn   that  she  was  the
ruler  of  Egypt and Ethiopia, as Queen Hatshepsut
was.33)  Spelling  her  name  in  the ancient Hebrew
alphabet yields the Queen of Sheba (Malkat Sheba
=  Malkah  Hatsheba)
  by  elision  of the letter “h”
and   faulty   separation  of  words.34)  Her  identity
with  the Egyptian wife of King Solomon is proven
by   the   fact   that  she  returned  home  with  her
enormous  dowry  after  a  divorce by consent, for
she  did  not  give  birth  to  a  son.35)


            33)  Cf.  Josephus  Flavius,  Jewish  Antiquities,  VIII,  6; and
Immanuel  Velikovsky  (N.  27)  pp.  118  and  151,  who explains her
Ethiopian  name  Makeda  from  Hatshepsut’s prenomen Maatkare.
            34)  Her  Hebrew  name Sheba may also be influenced by the
triliteral  hieroglyph  Sheps  “noble  seated  on chair” in Hatshepsut
reminding  ofarrowHebrew  Shebet  “sit”  and  Shabat  “rest”.
            35)   If   she   had  had  a  son,  the  Bible  would  surely  have
mentioned   him   as   King  Solomon’s successor,  but  it  is  known
that  Queen  Hatshepsut had only a daughter, see below Notearrow47.
Her  “gifts”  to  King  Solomon,  consisting  of  120  talents  of  gold
(1.  Kings  10,  10  and  2.  Chronicles  9,  9),  constituted  her dowry.
Otherwise,  it  would  not  make  sense  why  she arrived with a load
of   gold   reminiscent   of   the  reserves  of  an  ancient  Fort  Knox,
and  even  less  why  she  took  back  “what she had brought to the
king”   (2.   Chronicles   9,   12),  which  is  a  correct  emendation  of
1.  Kings  10,  13: Asher Hevi’ah (Natenah) El (be-Yad) ha-Melekh
;  cf.  ha-Ba’  be-Yado  “what  came  into  his  hand”  in
Genesis  32,  14,  and  the  manus-marriage  in  Roman  Law  with its
in  manum  convenire  (Gaius,  Institutes,  I,  108113).


Ed  Metzler

D. The Biblical Identification of the Bricks
of the Hawara Pyramid and the
Fayoum Exodus Route

       §   12.  The  historical  identity  of  the  people
of  Israel  is  tied  up  with  the  Israelite identity of
the pyramid builders. Pre-dating Queen Hatshepsut
by  about  five  centuries,  as  well as the beginning
and   end  of  the  pyramid  age  before  her,  is  an
anti-Semitic  trick  which  cheats  Israel  out  of its
history,  discredits  the  historicity  of  the  Hebrew
Bible,  and  transforms  it  into  a  book of religious
fairy-tales,   exploited   by   theology   to   promote
anti-Jewish  prejudice  and  superstition.  After  all,
modern   Egyptology  rests  upon  the  anti-Semitic
writings  of  Manetho  as  adopted  by  the  church
fathers.36)  Its  disorientation  extends  to  both time


            36)  Cf.  Immanuel  Velikovsky,  Peoples  of  the  Sea  (N.  31)
p.   229.   Of   course,   Manetho   avoids   mentioning  the  name  of
Imhotep-Joseph   in   connection   with   pharaoh  Zoser,  for  which
Wildung  (N.arrow8)  pp.  88  and  89  finds  a  good excuse, or rather
rationalization.    Denying   the   existence   of   Israel   in   Egyptian
history   from   the   times   of   Joseph  and  Moses  in  the  Old  and
Middle   Kingdom   down   to  Hatshepsut  and  the  Ptolemies  may


Israelite  Identity

and   place:   The   land  where  Hatshepsut  went,
and   Imhotep  came  from  is  the  land  of  Israel,
Canaan   or   Phoenicia  rendered  in  Egyptian  as
Punt  or  the  Holy  Land  of  God,  but  displaced
by   Egyptology   into  the  unexplored  wilderness
of  the  deep  south.37)
       §    13.   Pyramid   building   started   out   as
public   make-work   projects   for  employing  the
famine-stricken population of Egypt, who received


be   called   the   Egyptological   Auschwitz   lie  in  analogy  to  the
denial   of   German   neo-Nazis   that   Auschwitz   ever   happened.
What   suits   an   anti-Semitic   mind  is  the  downfall  of  Israel  as
mentioned   on   the   Merneptah   stele,  being  correctly  dated  by
Immanuel   Velikovsky,   Ramses   II  and  his  Time  (German  1979)
pp.    210218,    to    the   first   decades   of   the   Babylonian  Exile
(ca.   570   B. C. E.),  but  generally  misdated  more  than  600  years
earlier,  and  believed  to  be  the  one  and  only  mention  of  Israel
in  Egyptian  history.  This  absurd  belief  is geopolitical nonsense,
since  desert-surrounded  Egypt  has  always had Israel as its most
prominentarroweastern  neighbor  in  peace  and  war.
            37)   Appropriately,   this  disorientation  in  time  and  place,
which  amounts  to  mental  sickness,  was  discovered  in  1952  by
a   professional   psychiatrist,   well-versed  in  ancient  history:  the
greatarrowImmanuel   Velikovsky,  From  Exodus  to  King  Akhnaton
(N.   3)   chapters  3  and  4.  Some  fifteen  years  later,  the  German
Archaeological Institute in Cairo published a seemingly exhaustive
monograph   entitled  “Punt”   by   Rolf   Herzog   (1968),   in  which
Velikovsky’s  important  thesis that identifies Punt with Solomonic
Israel  (Phoenicia)  is simply missing. Both Velikovsky and Herzog
(pp.   19   and   20)   rely  on  inscriptions  clearly  defining  Punt  as
Egypt’s  neighbor  to  the  east,  which can be reached by land and
sea  via  Byblos  or Elat, and according to Richard Lepsius quoted


Ed  Metzler

grain rations under a government relief program.38)
Joseph   advised  pharaoh  Zoser  to  buy  surplus
grain   cheaply  during  the  seven  fat  years,  and
to  sell  it with a profit during the seven lean years.
After   the   people   had   spent  all  their  money,
cattle,  and  land to buy food they sold themselves
into  slavery,  just  to  survive.39)  In order to keep
this  work-force  busy, they were told to transport
stones  from  one  place to the other, pile them up
at   their   destination,   and   make  something  as
useless  as  bigger  graves  for  their  kings.  They


by   Herzog   (p.   31),   there   is   no  doubt  that  the  Phoenicians
(Latin  Poeni  or  Punici) derive their name from Punt (Hebrew Put
or   Canaan).   Another   name   for   Punt  in  Egyptian  is  T3-NTR
(To-Netzer)   “God’s   Land”,  a  literal  translation  of  Eretz Israel
(ha-Aretz Asher ha-El, whence Asherah El and Israel), also trans-
literated  into  hieroglyphs  as  RTNW  (Artzenu) “Our Land”, see
Ed  Metzler,  Roots  of  Kabbalah  (N.  14)  Note  37.
            38)  Thearrowdaily  ration  of grain for a gang (Minyan) of ten
workmen  was  an  Omer  full of ten portions (Manah), distributed
by   their   foreman   (El   “Sar”   or   Shofet   “Soped”),  cf.  Exodus
2,  14  (Sar  we-Shofet) and 18, 2122 (Sarey Assarot we-Shafetu);
Ed  Metzler,  Mosaical Metrology (N. 5) p. 16; and Rosalie David,
The  Pyramid  Builders  of  Ancient  Egypt  (London  1986)  p. 117.
            39)  As  a  matter of fact, the grain monopoly that led to the
centralization   of  the  Egyptian  state  was  created  by  collecting
a  20-percent  food  tax  (Genesis  41,  3436  and 47, 2426), which
is,  of  course,  the  cheapest  way of “buying”. In the end, Joseph
had  a  huge  work-force  at his command (Genesis 47, 1423), that
could  be  used  for  pyramid  building.


Israelite  Identity

even   did  more  useful  projects  like  the  Baher
   canal   named  after  Joseph.40)  In  the
course  of  time pyramids changed, and at the end
of   the   Middle  Kingdom  they  were  no  longer
made  of  solid  stones.
       §  14.  The  mud-brick pyramids with a lime-
stone  casing  on  the  outside,  that  were built for
pharaoh  Sesostris  II  at  Illahun, and for pharaoh
Amenemhet III at Hawara in the oasis of Fayoum,
contain  as building materials the same mud bricks
mixed with straw as the people of Israel produced
before  the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 1, 14 and
5,  719).41)  Near  the Illahun pyramid, there was
a  walled  pyramid-city, and probably another one
like   it   near   the  Hawara  pyramid,  which  are
identical   with   the   two   Arey  Mishkanot  (for
Miskenot)   “dwelling   cities”   mentioned  in  the


            40)   On   the   uselessness   of   pyramid  building  except  for
organizing labor and centralizing government cf. Kurt Mendelssohn,
The  Riddle  of  the  Pyramids  (London  1974)  pp.  1258 and 1459.
            41)  The  Hawara pyramid as measured by Sir Flinders Petrie
had  an  angle  of  around  50  degrees,  see  Armayor  (N.  20)  p.  58,
corresponding  to a Mosaical pyramid with the length and height of
the  Ark  of  the  Covenant,  cf.  p.arrow30  infra.


Ed  Metzler

Bible   (Exodus   1,  11),  and  Fayoum  (Pithom)
may   derive  its  name  from  one  of  them,  that
was  described  by  Herodotus  as the labyrinth.42)
Only   if   the   point  of  departure  was  Fayoum,
does  the  Exodus  route  to the Sinai lead through
the  Red  Sea,  which  is  no geographical obstacle
for  the  different  proposed Exodus routes leaving
from  the  Nile  delta.43) 

E.  The  Adoption  of  Israelite  Culture  by
Solomon’s  Contemporaries  in  Ugarit
and  Eighteenth-Dynasty  Egypt

       §  15.  In  the Solomonic age, the splendor of
Israelite  culture  set the standards for neighboring
countries,  who  adopted  its  various  aspects, but


            42)  Cf.  Rosalie  David  (N.  38)  pp.  3745  and  18999. The
pyramid-cities  were  inhabited by Hebrew slaves until their Exodus.
            43)   See   already   Ed  Metzler,  Ten  Commandments  (N.  6)
Note 36, and below p.arrow31. Before the Exodus God’s name YaHUH,
occurring  6823  times  in  the  Bible,  was  unknown  (Ibid. Note 13).
Instead, El Shadday (Egyptian “Shadtay”), an epithet of the god of
Fayoum  was  used,  meaning  the  god of “mounds” or “pyramids”.


Israelite  Identity

by    antedating  King  Solomon’s  contemporaries,
especially  his  wife  Queen  Hatshepsut  of  Egypt
more  than  five  centuries, Israel was deprived of
its   claim  to  priority.44)  That  is  why  it  seemed
unbelievable, when I discovered the Israelite origin
of   the   alphabet   and   the  system  of  Mosaical
metrology,  for  the  alphabetical  order  as well as
the  Kikar  “talent”  of  3000 Shekels were known
from  Ugarit,  falsely  believed  to have flourished
in   pre-Israelite   Canaan.45)  On  the  other  hand,
since  I  succeeded  in  proving with mathematical
precision  that  Ugarit  adopted  its  metrology and
alphabetical  order  from  Solomonic  Israel,  both
must  be  contemporary with each other, and with
eighteenth-dynasty  Egypt.46)


            44)  The  Egyptian and Ugaritic imitations of biblical psalms
are  well  known, but generally the plagiarists are considered to be
the   authors   due   to   the   mistake  in  accepted  chronology,  cf.
Immanuel  Velikovsky  (N.  27)  pp.  2017  and  3302.
            45) Doubtless, Ugarit is contemporary with late eighteenth-
dynasty  Egypt,  since it figures in the diplomatic correspondence
of  the  royal  archives  of  pharaoh  Akhnaton, cf. J. A. Knudtzon,
Die  El-Amarna-Tafeln  (Leipzig  1915),  misdated  from  the middle
of  the  9th  to  the  middle  of  the  14th  century  B. C. E.
            46)   See   Ed  Metzler,  Mosaical  Metrology (N. 5) p.arrow21,
and  below  Notesarrow51  and  52.


Ed  Metzler

       § 16. King Solomon is identical with pharaoh
Thutmosis  II,  the husband of Queen Hatshepsut
and  father  of  their only daughter Nofru-Re, and
of  her half-brother pharaoh Thutmosis III, whom
she  was to marry.47) Such an incestuous marriage
would  have  offended public policy in Israel, and
prevented   her   from  marrying  the  future  king
of  Jerusalem.48)  This  conflict of laws must have
led  to  the  departure  of  the  so-called Queen of
Sheba  or  Hatshepsut,  thus  enabling  her to rule
Egypt  after  her  separation  from King Solomon,
alias  Thutmosis  II,  who  is  conspicuous  by his
absence  in  Egyptian  history.49) After his father’s


            47)  Although  she  was  expected  to  marry  Thutmosis  III,
a   son   of  Thutmosis  II  from  Hatshepsut’s  maidservant  Isis,  it
seems  that  Nofru-Rearrowdied  in  her  teens before legitimizing her
husband’s  reign  by  marriage.  Thus,  his  claim to the throne did
not   depend   on   Hatshepsut,  but  merely  on  his  descent  from
Thutmosis   II,    an  immaterial  fact  under  the  Egyptian  law  of
matrilineal  succession.
            48)  Both  children  were probably born in Jerusalem during
the years, when Hatshepsut-Sheba lived there (cf. Note 35 supra).
Her   daughter   Nofru-Re  was  prohibited  by  the  laws  of  Israel
(Leviticus  18,  9  and  11;  Deuteronomy  27,  22)  to  marry  one of
her   half-brothers  in  Jerusalem,  which  she  could  do  in  Egypt,
making  him  pharaoh  by  marriage,  see  e. g.  Kurt  Mendelssohn
(N.  40)  pp.  31  and  32.
            49)  Their  separation  must  have appeared as a Solomonic


Israelite  Identity

death,   Thutmosis   III   conquered  Phoenicia  or
Solomonic  Israel, which included Syria, Lebanon,
and   Jordan,  in  a  war  ofarrowsuccession.  What  is
described  and  depicted  as  Punt  or Phoenicia on
the   temples   of  Hatshepsut  and  Thutmosis  III
represents  Israelite  culture  during  its golden age,
as  seen  by  Solomon’s  contemporaries.50)
       §  17.  For  geographical  reasons Greece and
Ugarit,   which   is   located  on  the  Syrian  coast
off  Cyprus,  must  have  adopted  Israelite culture
at  about  the  same  time.  The  alphabetical order
was  copied  by  Ugarit  and  Greece  from  Israel,
after  it  had  lost  the  “th”-sound at the beginning
of its monarchy in a sound change, setting Hebrew


solution  of  their  problems,  since  it  would  make  their  children
king  and  queen  of  Egypt, while allowingarrowHatshepsut to be its
de-facto ruler for the next 20 odd years, protected by her divorced
husband  in  Israel,  whom she called Amon (Solomon) instead of
his YaHUH-name Jedidiah (2. Samuel 12, 25), and whom Manetho
called Chevron [Hebron] after the former capital of Judah.
            50)   Cf.   Immanuel   Velikovsky   (N.  27)  pp.  13031  and
16775,  who  identified  on  the reliefs in Karnak many objects of
the  spoils  from the First Temple (ha-Kelim Asher Bet YaHUH) in
Jerusalem, such as the Lechem ha-Panim (= Man Lifney YaHUH)
“shewbread”   (1.   Kings   7,   48):  30  of  gold  (600  Shekel)  plus
24  of  malachite  and  one  of  silver  (500 Shekel), i. e. Tzinah and
Tzintzenet, see Ed Metzler, Mosaical Metrology (N. 5) Notearrow30.


Ed  Metzler

apart  from  other  Semitic  languages.51) There is
nothing  more  Israelite  than the Torah of Moses
from   the   Sinai   on  the  Tablets  of  the  Law,
deposited by King Solomon in the Holy of Holies
of  the  First  Temple in Jerusalem. In his foreign
trade   the  standards  of  weights  and  measures
were  determined  by  these tablets as subdivided
according  to  their  geometrical  properties.  The
weight  of  one  tablet  is  the  Kikar  “talent”  of
3000  Shekels or 6000 half-Shekels “drachmas”,
adopted  by  Ugarit  and  Greece  from  Israel in
Solomonic  or  post-Solomonic  times.52)
       §  18.  As  a  legal  scientist  I discovered all
I  wanted  to  know  about  the Mosaical Tablets
of  the  Law,  their inscription, and the original


            51)  See  Ed  Metzler,  Alphabetical  Order  (N.  2)  Notes 33
andarrow34;  Idem,  Ten  Commandments  (N.  6)  pp.  27,  28  and 31.
The  original  alphabet  on  the Tablets of the Law of the Torah of
Moses  from  the  Sinai  had  a  special letter for “th” that I spotted
as  Tzadi,  which  stood  for  an “s”-sound by the time Greece and
Ugarit  adopted  the  alphabet  from  Israel.
            52) On the geometrical properties of the Tablets of the Law
cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  p. 50; and Ed Metzler,
Mosaical Metrology (N. 5) p.arrow12. The number of 3000 Shekels is
a  multiple  of the 150 cubic letter-units of every tablet, equivalent
to  the shewbread (above Note 50) each divided into 20 sub-units.


Israelite  Identity

alphabet,  in  which it was written, their geometry,
and  their  weights  and  measures.  My  discovery
presented   cogent  proof  of  a  cultural  reception
by  Ugarit from Israel in the age of King Solomon,
which is, therefore, contemporary with eighteenth-
dynasty  Egypt.53)  Hence  a  correction  of ancient
chronology  is  more  imperative  than ever, dating
the  Exodus  and  the  end of the Middle Kingdom
to  the  year  1441  B. C. E.,  and  thus identifying
the  people  of  Israel  with  the  pyramid builders.
Their   proletarian   revolution  brought  about  the
end  of  the  pyramid  age,  and  the foundation of
the  ancient  Republic  of  Israel,  whose alphabet
made  knowledge  available  to everybody, paving
the  way  for  a  democratic  world.54)


            53)  While  the  average  mistake  in  accepted  chronology is
some  500  years  for  eighteenth-dynasty Egypt, it shrinks to about
350  years  towards  the  end  of  the  Middle  Kingdom,  and  grows
to  700  or  800  years in the reigns of pharaoh Zoser and Ramses III,
cf.  Immanuel  Velikovsky  (N.  31)  pp.  214224.
            54)  The  political  desirability of the alphabet in a democracy
was   essential   to  its  introduction  at  the  time  of  the  Exodus  of
the  Hebrew  slaves  from  Egypt. Knowledge is power according to
Francis Bacon, and making it available to everybody as democratic
as  opposing  idol  worship  and  checking  authority by experience,
cf.  Ed  Metzler,  Roots  of  Kabbalah  (N.  14)  Notearrow 33.


Ed  Metzler

Mosaical Pyramid
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]

Mosaical Pyramid

measuring   2.5   cubits  in  height  as  well  as  at
the   base,   dividing   the  cubit  at  the  top  edge
of  one  of  the  2  tablets  of  Moses  into 10 equal
parts. The [blue] pyramid over the same base with
a  height  of  1.5  cubits  has  an  angle  of around
50 degrees, corresponding to the Hawara pyramid
as measured byarrowSir Flinders Petrie.


Israelite  Identity

Fayoum Exodus Route
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]
Fayoum Exodus Route


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