Logo of  AMMM - Archives
for Mosaical Metrology and Mosaistics Archives for Mosaical Metrology and Mosaistics, AMMM Vol. I, No. 1AMMM Online!             Next

Mosaical Metrology · 3D Decalogue · 2D Alphabet · Kabbalah · Pyramids · Israelite Dynasty · Philosophy · Musical Theory · Metzler Formula · Mosaical Religions

The tablets of Moses set standards for weights and measures.

The Pi Web Ring™
[ Join Now | Ring Hub | Random | << Prev | Next >> ]


Discovering the System of Mosaical Metrology*

by Dr. Ed Metzler

Dr. Metzler-Moziani (Photo), The Metzler Formula

       § 1. Some discoveries are made when looking
for  something  else – just think of America –, and
others  without  looking  for  anything.  I  certainly
was   not  expecting  a  discovery  in  the  field  of
historical  metrology,  but simply wanted to satisfy
my   curiosity,  when  I  decided  to  calculate  the
exact  weight  of  the  stone tablets of Moses, only
in  the  second  English edition (1985) of my book
entitled  “TORAH OF THE ALPHABET, Recon-


            *Dedicated   to   the  memory  of  my  distinguished  teacher
Dr.   Jur.   and  Dr.  Phil.  Fritz  Schwarz,  late  professor  of  Roman
and   Civil   Law   on   the   chair  of  Savigny  at  the  University  of
Marburg,  Germany.


Ed  Metzler

struction of the 2 Tablets of Moses in the Original
”   (p.arrow50),   which   I  wrote  under  the
pen-name  ELIYAHU  MOZIANI.1)
       §  2.  As  emphasized  in  the  introduction  of
my  book  (p.  16),  my  point of departure is com-
parative  history  of  law,  which  led to a complete
reconstruction   of   the  two  Tablets  of  the  Law
including  the precise measurements of each tablet,
being  one  cubit  wide,  one and a half cubits long,
and  one  tenth  of  a cubit thick.2) Since I had pub-
lished  these  measurements  already in 1983 in the
first  German  edition  of  my book (p. 51), I could
have  figured  out  their  weight  already  then. But,


            1) Eliyahu Moziani,arrowTORAH OF THE ALPHABET, Recon-
struction   of   the  2  Tablets  of  Moses  in  the  Original  Alphabet
2nd   English   ed.   (1985)   ISBN   3-924448-02-7   (hardcover),   pub-
lished   by   Baalschem   Press,   and   selling   for   US-Dollars  12.95
(hereinafter   cited   as   TORAH   OF   THE  ALPHABET) . –  Calcu-
lating  the  weight  puts  the  book  on  a  test,  which, if passed, pre-
sents   strong   additional  proof  for  the  correctness  of  the  recon-
            2)  See  TORAH OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1) p.arrow51. The pro-
portions  of  the  tablets  are  derived  from  an alphabetical analysis
of  the  text  of  the  Ten  Commandments  (p.  119),  which is written
in  10  lines  of  32  letters, and distributed on front, top, and reverse
of  each  tablet  requiring  10  vertical  and  15  horizontal letter-units
of  0.1  cubit  on  the  tablets  as well as one letter-unit on their tops,
which  determines  their  thickness  (pp.arrow100–107).


Mosaical  Metrology

as  the  Talmud  puts  it,  questions of physics and
geometry  are  on  the  periphery  of  legal  science
(Avot  3,  23),  so  that  it  took  some time, until I
finally  got  around  to  them.

A.  Kikar  and  Cubit  Defined  by  the
Tablets  of  the  Law

       §  3.  From  archaeology  we  know  that  one
cubit  was  approximately  44.6 cm.3) On this basis
one  cubic  cubit  contains 88 716.536 cubic centi-
meters,  so  that the 0.15 cubic cubits of one stone
tablet   hold   13 307.48   cubic   centimeters.  Not
knowing   what   kind  of  stone  the  tablets  were
made  out  of,  my  first guess was granite, for it is
a   good   and   frequent  material,  that  was  used


            3)  The  data  required  for the present purposes, such as the
cubit  of  about  44.6  cm,  the  Omer  of  some 2.2 liters, the average
weight  of  a  Beka  (6.03  grams), and the specific gravity of granite
(around   2.7),   are   generally   known   and  can  be  found  in  any
handbook  or  encyclopaedia,  cf.  e.  g.  the  excellent  summary by
Eliezer Bashan Sternberg, Weights and Measures, in the Encyclo-
paedia  Judaica,  vol.  16 (1972) at 379 (hereinafter cited as Bashan).
[From  a  letter  of  August  6,  1987  by  the  Encyclopaedia Judaica
I  learned  that  they  used  the wrong abbreviation for the author’s
name  in  the  article  on  Weights  and Measures, which was really
by  professor  Ephraim  Stern.]


Ed  Metzler

already   in   ancient Egypt.4)  Tentatively  starting
out  with  granite,  which has a specific gravity of
around  2.7,  the  weight  of one tablet turned out
to  be  35 930.197 grams or about 36 kilograms.5)
       §  4.  Obviously granite was the right choice,
because  a  weight  of  about  36  kilograms is not
an  unknown quantity, but the biggest weight-unit
of  the  Bible,  which is called a Kikar in Hebrew,
and  a  talent in Greek.6) From the Bible we know
that  it  consisted  of  3000  Shekel  or 6000 half-
Shekel  called Beka (Greek “drachma”),7) and the
seven weight-stones found in Israel with Beka or
B  written  on  them  have  an  average weight of
6.03  grams.8)  If  the cubit were exactly 44.6 cm,


            4) Obelisks in particular were made out of the reddish granite
from  Asswan  (Syene),  and  even today granite is used for a good
grave-stone.  A  broad hint in favor of granite results from dividing
the  weight  of  a Mina or Manah-stone, which is 100 Beka or about
0.6   kilograms,arrowby   one   tenth   of  an  Omer  or  some  0.22  liters
(=   2.727 2727),   see  below  text  accompanying  Notes  25  and  32.
            5)  The  specific  gravity of granite (around 2.7) is a generally
known   fact,  which  I  looked  up  in  Gustav  Haegele,  Das  kleine
Lexikon  der  Chemie  (1952)  at 459.
            6)  Cf.  Bashan  (N.  3)  at  382.
            7) Defined   in   Exodus   38,  25  and  26.  In  Greek  the  Beka
was  called  “drachma”,  and  the Shekel a “didrachmon” or double-
Beka,  see  Bashan  (N.  3)  at  381.
            8)  Cf.  Bashan  (N.  3)  at  387.


Mosaical  Metrology

a  Beka  would be 5.988 3662 grams, and if it were
exactly 6 grams, a cubit would be 44.628 863 cm.9)
Hence a Beka is very close to 6 grams, and a Kikar
very close to 36 kilograms.
       §  5. This suggests that the Tablets of the Law
in  the  Ark  of  the Covenant in the Holy of Holies
in  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem served as prototypes
of  ancient weights and measures defining the cubit
as  the  width  of  one  tablet,  and  the Kikar as its
weight.10)   It   would  explain  why  the  Bible  fre-
quently  speaks  of  the  “holy”  Shekel, apparently
referring   to  the  original  standard  of  weights  in
the   Holy   of  Holies.11)  This  hyothesis  must  be
considered  correct  if  the  subdivisions  of biblical
weights  and  measures  conform  to  the geometry
of  the  tablets  and  their  box,  –  which  they  do.


            9)  See  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  p.arrow50  and
footnote,   where   the   length   of  a  cubit  (=  44.628 863  cm)  was
calculated,  for  the  first  time,  from  the  average weight of a Beka,
which  is  very  close  to  6  grams  (6.03  gm). Of course, this calcu-
lation  could  not  have  been  done  before, because the number of
0.15  cubic  cubits  of  one  stone tablet was not known, cf. Note 23
infra,  and  text  accompanying  Notearrow45.
            10)  Cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1) pp. 8 and 50.
            11)    The   “holy”   Shekel   of   the   sanctuary   or   “Shekel
ha-Kodesh”   is   mentioned   in   Exodus   30,   13  and  24,  also  in
Exodus  38,  24–26  et  passim.


Ed  Metzler

B.  The  Geometry  of  the  Tablets  of
the  Law  and  their  Box

       §  6.  The  rectangular  box  known as the Ark
of  the  Covenant,  and  made to measure for trans-
porting  the  stone  tablets from the Sinai to Canaan
was 2.5 cubits long, 1.5 cubits wide, and 1.5 cubits
high  (Exodus  37,  1).12)  During  transportation the
tablets  were  lying  flat  on  the  bottom of the box
with  their  length  fitting  exactly  into the width of
the   box.13)  Of  course,  a  rectangular  tablet  only
fits  into  a  rectangular  box, if the craftsmen, both
the  carpenter  and  the stone-mason, know how to
do   a  right  angle  with  precision,  something  one


            12)  The  same  measurements  are  found  in  Exodus  25, 10.
The    volume   of   the   ark   is   15   times   15   (=   225)   Omers   or
about   500   liters,   see  below  Note  23.  The  height  is  explained
by   the   fact   that   the   tablets   were   inscribed   on   both  sides
(Exodus   32,   15),   and   had  to  be  set  up  within  the  box  when
reading   them,   cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  pp.  18
and   51.
            13)   Cf.   TORAH   OF   THE   ALPHABET   (N.   1)   pp.   51
and   119.  This  is  important  proof  for  checking  the  correctness
of  the  reconstruction  of  the  Tablets  of  the  Law,  because their
proportions   were   gained   by   alphabetical  analysis  of  the  text
of   the   Ten   Commandments   (see   Note   2  supra),  and  fit  like
a   glove   into   the   known   measurements   of   the   Ark   of   the


Mosaical  Metrology

might  expect  of  the  Hebrew  slaves,  who were
construction   workers,  engineers,  and  architects
led  out  of  Egypt  by  Moses.14)
       § 7. That Moses, indeed, had the geometrical
know-how   to  do  a  right  angle  with  precision,
when  he  hewed  the  two stone tablets, becomes
a  certainty,  when  we  check their measurements
as  to  whether  they  contain  the so-called Pytha-
gorean  numbers  3,  4,  and  5.15) This is the case,
if   the  tablets  are  placed  side  by  side  next  to


            14)    The    people   of   Israel   were   the   pyramid   builders
beginning  under  pharaoh  Zoser’s ministerarrowImhotep, the biblical
Jehoseph, and after their Exodus at the end of the Middle Kingdom
(cf.  Notearrow54  infra)  no  more  pyramids  were  built  in Egypt. The
organization   of   labor,   which   could   also  be  used  for  judicial,
military,  and  administrative  purposes  (see  below  Note 32), made
Israel   a   people,   and   the   Exodus  possible.  Joseph  (short  for
Jehoseph)  became  high priest of Heliopolis “On” (Genesis 41, 45),
and  his  god  El  (short  for  Ayil)  was  known as Chnum in Egypt,
while  the  name  YaHUH  was  not known before the time of Moses
(Exodus   6,   3,   cf.   Note   29   infra).   The   last   pyramids   of  the
Middle   Kingdom   in  Fayoum  (Pithom)  were  made  out  of  mud
bricks   mixed   with   straw,   as   described   in   Exodus  1,  14,  and
5,  7  seqq.,  see  also  Josephus  Flavius,  Jewish  Antiquities  II,  9,
who   speaks  of  pyramids  and  irrigation  ditches  built  by  Israel,
obviously  referring  toarrowFayoum.
            15)   The   squares   of   3  and  4  (9  plus  16)  are  25,  which
is   5   times   5,   the  only  instance  of  whole  numbers  under  ten
making    up   a   right   triangle.   The   next   such   combination   is
5,   12,   and   13.   Knowing   the   combination   3,  4,  and  5  –  like
that  of  a safe – is knowing the secret of the Pythagorean theorem.


Ed  Metzler

each  other,  because  their  length  is 3 half-cubits,
their  combined  width  isarrow4  half-cubits,  and  the
diagonal of the combined rectangle is 5 half-cubits,
which  is  the length of the box. Thus the measure-
ments  of  the  tablets  and  their box anticipate the
theorem  of  Pythagoras  by about 900 years, who
according   to   Hermippus  of  Smyrna  owed  his
theories  to  the  Jews.16)
       §  8.  The  geometry  of  the  tablets and their
box  also  providesarrowan  easy  method  for dividing
a  cubit  into six equal parts called handbreadths,17)
or  into  ten  equal  parts, which are the letter-units
of  the  10  lines (Devarim) of the Ten Command-
ments,  as  I have shown in my book TORAH OF
THE  ALPHABET  (pp.  6  and  8).18) This means


            16)  Cf.  Daniel  E. Gershenson, Pythagoras, in the Encyclo-
paedia  Judaica,  vol.  13  (1972)  at  1416.  Pythagoras lived during
the   Babylonian   Exile,   and   may   have   come   in   contact  with
Jewish  refugees,  but  the  adoption  of Israelite culture, especially
the  alphabet,  numbers,  and weights, by Greece must have begun
already  in  the  golden  age  of  King  Solomon  and continued for
some  centuries,  see  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET (N. 1) pp. 25
and   71.
            17)  Cf.  Bashan  (N.  3)  at  379.
            18)   This  method  simply  requires  a  peace  of  string,  and
folding   it   once   or   twice   in   the   middle   in   order   to  obtain
a   half-cubit   or   a   quarter-cubit.  It  implies  the  basic  geometry
of   the   pyramid,   which   was   part   of  the  technical  know-how
of  Moses  and  his  pyramid  builders,  see above Notes 14 and 15.


Mosaical  Metrology

that   the   handbreadth  between  the  tablets,  and
between  them  and  the  front  and  rear boards of
the  box  (p.  51)  as  well  as  the  10  vertical and
15  horizontal  lines  on  the  tablets  (pp.  101 and
113)   could   likewise   be  drawn  with  precision.
Since  the  tablets  are  one  tenth  of a cubit thick,
they  consist  of  150 cubic letter-units of 0.1 cubit

C. Geometrical Subdivisions of Mosaical
Weights and Measures

       §  9.  The  geometrical  subdivision of a tablet
into  150  cubes  is  not  only  the  reason  why the
original   text   of   the   Ten  Commandments  has
320  letters,  but  also  determines  the  number  of


            19)   Twoarrowpyramids   are  needed  for  dividing  the  cubits
at   the   top   and   bottom   of   the   Tablets  of  the  Law  into  ten
equal   parts,   and   for   drawing   the   ten   vertical   lines   of   the
Ten  Commandments,  which  could  not  be  written  without them.
Thearrowhexagram   formed  by  the  two  pyramids  is  a  geometrical
necessity   explaining   its   symbolical   meaning,   cf.  TORAH  OF
THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  pp.  2  and  113.


Ed  Metzler

3000  Shekels  in  a  Kikar.20)  If  a Kikar is about
36 kilograms, each cube weighs some 240 grams,
which are easily divided into 20 Shekel of around
12  grams, 30 Pim of around 8 grams or 40 Beka
of around 6 grams.21) This explains why there are
3000 Shekel, 4500 Pim or 6000 Beka in a Kikar,
–  because they are all multiples of the 150 cubes
of  0.1  cubit,  into  which  the tablets are broken
by applying the rules of basic geometry.22) 


            20)  Since  half  of  the  150 squares of 0.1 cubit on the front
and  reverse  sides  of  the  2  tablets  of Moses were empty spaces
between  the  lines,  there  was  room  for 300 letters plus 10 letters
on  the  top  edges  of  the  tablets,  and  another 10 turning-letters
between  the  lines,  320  letters  altogether,  see  TORAH  OF THE
ALPHABET   (N.  1)  pp.  101  and  120.  –  Covering  an  area  with
a   network   of   squares  for  drawing  pictures  or  pictographs  is
an  old  Egyptian  technique.
            21)  This  means  that every Beka found in Israel (cf. Note 8
supra)  is  a  more  or  less  exact  copy of 1/6000 part of one of the
tablets  of  Moses  from  the  Sinai  that  used  to  be in the Holy of
Holies  of  the  First  Temple  in  Jerusalem!  –  The  weight  of one
cubic   letter-unit   of   granite   (240   grams)   is,   of   course,   one
thousandth   (0.15  :  150  =  0.001  =  0.1³ )  of  one  cubic  cubit  of
granite  (240  kilograms).
            22)  The  granite  cubes  of  some  240  grams  or  20  Shekel
are obviously meant, when 2. Samuel 14, 26 speaks of “200 Shekel
in  the  stone  of  the  king”,  which  is 10 such stone cubes or one
horizontal  line  of  cubic  letter-units  of  one of the Tablets of the
Law.   The   Tzinah   mentioned   in   1.  Kings  10,  16  consists  of
600   Shekel  or  30  stone  cubes,  which  is  three  horizontal  lines
of  ten  cubic  letter-units  each  or  one  fifth of one of the Tablets
of  the  Law.


Mosaical  Metrology

       § 10.  The  Tablets  of  the  Law  may also
be  broken  uparrowgeometrically  into  six  vertical
columns,   each  being  one  handbreadth  wide,
one   and   a   half  cubits  long,  and  one  tenth
of  a  cubit  thick.23) One such column of granite
weighs  about  6  kilograms,  and  has  a volume
of  some  2.2  liters,  which  is  called  an Omer,
and  probably  connected with Omed “standing”
and  Amud  “column”  from Amad “to stand”.24)
The  length  of  the Omer-column may easily be
cut  up  into  ten  portions  of  some  0.22  liters
or  about  600  grams,  which  are called Manah


            23)   These   measurements  permit,  for  the  first  time,  to
calculate  the  volume  of  an  Omer  from  the  length  of  a  cubit
(0.15  :  6  =  0.025  cubic  cubits)  or  from  the  weight  of a Beka:
If  the  cubit  were  exactly 44.6 cm, an Omer would be 2.217 9134
liters, and if a Beka were exactly 6 grams and the specific gravity
of   granite   were   exactly   2.7,   an  Omer  would  be  2.222 2222
liters   (=  6  :  2.7),   which  agrees  with  the  conjectured  values
based   upon   archaeological  finds,  cf.  Bashan  (N.  3)  at  380.
            24)  Cf.  comparative  phonetics:  The  final  “d”  changes
to  “r”  in  Spanish  “Sud”  and  “Sur”  (south), also in Japanese
“r”  sometimes  sounds  like  “d”.  Moreover, this would explain
the   etymology   of   Amorah   (Greek  “Gomorrha”)  as  being  a
female  column  Amudah  giving  rise  to  the  legend  about  the
pillar  of  salt,  into  which Lot’s wife turned (Genesis 19, 24–26).
The  metamorphosis  (Mahpekhah)  of  Gomorrha  is parallelled
by  the  perversion  of  Sodom  into  blocks  (Sadim  or Siddim).


Ed  Metzler

“portion”   in   Hebrew   or  Mina  in  Latin,  and
consist  of  100  Beka  of  about  6  grams or two
and  a  half  of  the  cubes  of  0.1  cubit.25)
       §  11.  Thus  the  story  of the broken tablets
has  a  metrological  root referring to the fractions
of  biblical  weights  and  measures.26)  The  stone
fragments   of  the  other  tablets,  which  had  no
writing  on  them,27) were used in packing the box,
because  the  three  empty  spaces  of  one  hand-
breadth   each   had  to  be  filled  and  cushioned
by  stones  wrapped  in fleece in order to prevent


            25)   If  the  Manah-stone  held  some  222  cubic  centimeters
(cf.  Note  23  supra),  the  volume  of  one  of  the  stone  cubes was
around   88.9   cubic   centimeters,  which  would  be  that  of  a  little
cup  of  wine  Kis  Yayin  (Proverbs  23, 31), so that the stone cubes
could  be  called  cup-stones  Avne Kis (Proverbs 16, 11) in contrast
to the bigger Manah-stones (Avne Man). When the Manah became
obsolete   as   a   measure  of  volume  (cf.  Notes  33  and  35  infra),
its use as a weight-stone probably superseded the smaller Even Kis
or   cup-stone.   Of   course,   a   cup   like  that  on  the  palm  of  the
pharaoh  (Genesis  40,  11)  is  normally  called  a Kos, and not a Kis.
            26)  According  to  Exodus  32,  19  Moses  broke  the  tablets
in  anger,  but  it  is  also  written  that “all weight-stones (Avne Kis)
are  his  work”  (Proverbs  16,  11).
            27)  The  legend  reports  that  the  writing on the first tablets
miraculously  disappeared,  when  Moses  broke  them  (TJ Ta‘an. 4;
5,  68  c).  In  any  case,  the  broken  tablets had no writing on them
after  they  were  broken,  and  were  still extant more than 800 years
after    the   Exodus   from   Egypt,   when   King   Josiah   hid   them
together  with the Holy Ark, before the First Temple was destroyed
(Yoma  52  b).


Mosaical  Metrology

the   Tablets   of  the  Law  from  sliding  sideways
and  damaging  each  other.28)  A  little fleece (Tzin-
  was  taken,  into  which  an  Omer-column
of  ten  Manah-stones  was  put,  and  laid  in front
of   thearrowfirst  tablet  (YaHUH).29)  Another  fleece
(Tzinah)  of  a  sheep  (Tzon  or Tzoneh) was used
for   wrapping   two   stone  columns  of  15  cubic
letter-units each, one of which was placed between
the   tablets,  and  the  other  between  the  second
tablet   and   the  rear  board,  leaving  almost  one
centimeter  for  each  of  the  six spaces cushioned
by  fleece.30) 


            28)   Since   the   broken   tablets  were  needed  for  packing
the  Tablets  of  the  Law  within  the  ark,  they  travelled wherever
the   ark   went,   whenever   the   people   of   Israel   went   to  war
(Tosef.  Sot.  7,  18).
            29)  The  first  stone tablet introduces itself, “I am YaHUH”,
cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  pp.  18 and 49, see also
Exodus   6,   2  and  3.  Tzintzenet  “little  fleece”  is  the  diminutive
of   Tzinah  “fleece”  (cf.  Note  30  infra).  When  Manah  changed
its  meaning,  so  did Tzintzenet from a wrapping of Manah-stones
to  an  Omer-pot  or  basket  for  grain,  see  below  Note 33. Traces
of  the  original  meaning  are  the  word  “take” instead of  “make”,
and   the   diminutive,   both   of   which  are  more  appropriate  for
a  little  fleece  than  a  big  Omer-pot  (Exodus  16,  33).
            30)  The  30  stone  cubes  are  one  fifth of a tablet (cf. Note
22   supra)   requiring   a  bigger  fleece  (Tzinah)  for  wrapping,  if
arranged   in   two   columns,   than   the   little  fleece  (Tzintzenet)
needed   for  wrapping  one  column  of  10  Manah-stones,  which


Ed  Metzler

D.  Mosaical  Metrology  before,  during,
and  after  the  First  Temple

       §  12. As the word Manah “portion” indicates,
it  was  originally  a measure of volume defined by
that  of  about 600 grams of granite, which contain
some  0.22  liters  constituting  thearrowdaily ration of
grain  for  one  person,  when  the people of Israel
migrated  through the desert after the Exodus from
Egypt  on  their  way home to Canaan.31) The deci-
mal  system of the measures of volume correspon-
ded  to  the  judicial structure, because judges over
tens would distribute an Omer (10 Manah), judges
over  hundreds  an  Ephah  (10 Omer), and judges


are  only  one  sixth  of  a  tablet,  see  above  Notes  23,  25, and 29.
Since   King   Solomon  took  four  times  more  gold  for  a  Tzinah
(600  Shekel)  than  for  a  Magen  “shield”,  which  had  three Man
(150  Shekel),  it  was  interpreted  as  a  bigger  shield  (1. Kings 10,
16 and 17). The original meaning occurs in the expression “a fleece
of  snow”  (Proverbs  25,  13).  In  foreign  trade  monetary units of
600  Shekel  of  silver  or  150  Shekel  were  used  (1.  Kings 10, 29).
            31)  Food  rationing  was  introduced  in  Egypt  by  Joseph,
who   established   a   state   monopoly  for  grain,  see  Genesis  41
and  47,  13–26,  also  above  Note  14.  The  people  of Israel must
have  carried  sufficient  supplies of grain with them, because they
did  not  depend  for  food  on  the  desert  people, whose territory
they   passed   on   their  migration  (Numbers  20,  17  and  21,  22).


Mosaical  Metrology

over  thousands  a  Chomer  (10  Ephah)  of grain
per   day.32)   Later   on,   the  use  of  the  Manah
(short  “Man”)  as  a  measure of volume became
obsolete   giving  rise  to  the  well-known  legend,
which  has  a  metrological rather than a biological
       §  13.  King Solomon, who began to build the
First  Temple  in the fourth year of his reign (961)
and  the  480th  year  after  the  Exodus (1441),34)
used  the  Manah  or  Maneh as a weight-stone.35)
Since  the  Kikar  is  defined by the weight of one
of  the  Tablets  of  the Law (Luchot ha-Berit) in


            32)   Cf.   Bashan   (N.   3)   at   380.  On  the  judicial  structure
see   Exodus   18,   21.  –  A  Chomer  is  2.5  cubic  cubits,  an  Ephah
one  fourth  of  a  cubic  cubit,  an  Omer  one  fortieth,  and a Manah
1/400,  cf.  Notes  23  and  25  supra.
            33)  According  to  Exodus  16,  31  it  was  like coriander seed.
Since   the  first  syllable  of  Manah  “portion”  can  be  understood
as the interrogative pronoun Mah “what?” the story has something
of   a   riddle  (Exodus  16,  15),  which  is  not  unusual  in  the  Bible,
cf.  Judges  14,  12  and  1.  Kings  10,  1.
            34)   Cf.   1.   Kings  6,  1  and  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET
(N.  1)  pp.  14  and  31.
            35)   See   1.   Kings   10,   17,  where  one  Magen  “shield”  is
defined  as  having  three  Man,  which is 150 Shekel, as can be seen
from   1.  Kings  10,  29.  The  Man  consisting  of  50  Shekel  is  also
mentioned  in  Leviticus  27,  3  and  in  2.  Kings  15,  20.  Cf. Bashan
(N.  3)  at  382  and  383.


Ed  Metzler

the  Ark  of  the  Covenant  in  the Holy of Holies
in  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem,  its second syllable
“Kar”  must be derived from “Karat Berit” (to cut
or  inscribe  the Covenant), while the first syllable
“Ki”  means  “approximately  like”,  and refers to
the   loss   of   weight   due  to  the  inscription.36)
Therefore,   the   Kikar   has  to  be  redefined  in
terms  of  the  stones of the broken tablets, which
had   no   writing   on  them,  either  as  5  Tzinah
with  30  granite  cubes  of  0.1  cubit  each, or as
6  Tzintzenet  with  10 Manah-stones each.37) The
weight  of such a broken tablet without inscription
is   not   exactly,   but   only  “approximately  like
inscribed”,  i.  e.  Ki-kar  or  “quasi-Karat”.


            36)   Cf.   Exodus   34,   27  (“Karati  Berit”),  and  Ruth  2,  17:
“ke-Ephah”  –  about  an  Ephah.  The  Kikar,  like  the cubit (N. 42),
the   Manah   of   bread   (N.   32),   and   the   cup  of  wine  (N.  25),
relates  to  the  human body, because it is the weight that a worker,
such  as  a  stevedore  can  carry  when  loading  a  ship.
            37)  Kikar  “like  inscribed”  meaning  a  granite  stone  of the
same  size  as  one  of  the  tablets  (Luchot ha-Berit), on which the
Covenant  is  inscribed  (Karat  Berit),  but without the inscription,
which would diminish the weight. Since one stone cube (Even Kis)
has  20  Shekel,  one  Tzinah  is 600 Shekel, while one Manah-stone
has   50   Shekel,   so   that   one   Tzintzenet  is  500  Shekel.  Hence
600  Shekel  of  gold  or  silver  (above  Note  30)  equals the weight
of  all  the  broken  cubic  letter-units  in  the  Holy  Ark.


Mosaical  Metrology

       §  14.  Since  the First Temple was destroyed
in  586  B. C. E.,  the  whereabouts of the Tablets
of the Law are unknown, as the prophet Jeremiah
tells  us.38)  According  to  the  Talmud  the Ark of
the  Covenant, and the Tablets of the Law as well
as  the  broken  tablets  were  hidden  in a cave by
King  Josiah fearing the destruction of the temple,
so  that  they  may  still  be  waiting  to  be  found
in   a  Genizah.39)  Although  the  text  of  the  Ten
Commandments,  and  the  measurements  of  the
Ark  of  the  Covenant have been preserved in the
Bible,40)   their   geometry   seems  to  have  fallen
into   oblivion.41)   Only   after   it   was  forgotten,


            38)   Cf.   Jeremiah  3,  16,  see  also  2.  Maccabeans  2,  1–8.
            39)  Cf.  Tosef.  Sot.  13,  1;  j. Shek. 6, 49 c;  and  Yoma 52 b.
            40)   Cf.  TORAH  OF  THE  ALPHABET  (N.  1)  p.  17  and
supra  Note 2. Of course, Jewish tradition has carefully preserved
this   important  text  of  its  most  ancient  and  central  document,
which  was  kept  in  the  Holy  of  Holies  in the First Temple, and
has come down upon us in two slightly varying versions (Exodus
20,  2–14,  and  Deuteronomy  5,  6–18).  This  information  proved
sufficient  to  reconstruct  the  Tablets  of  the Law in the TORAH
OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1) p. 119.
            41)   But   the   memory  lingers  on,  because  geometry,  in
Hebrew   “Gematriah”,   has   always  remained  one  of  the  major
subjects  of  Kabbalah,  although  it  developped  into  something
different,  cf.  Gershom  Scholem,  Kabbalah  (1974)  pp.  337–343.
Similarly,   the   Magen   David   is   one  of  its  traditional  topics


Ed  Metzler

an   additional   handbreadth   could  be  added  to
the   cubit,  an  additional  Tzinah  of  600  Shekel
to   the   Kikar   or   an  additional  ten  Shekel  to
every Mina,42) which is simply nonsense within the
system  of  Mosaical  metrology  and its geometry.

E.  The  Use  of  Israelite  Metrology  in
Neighboring  Countries

       §   15.   The   use  of  Israelite  metrology  in
neighboring  countries  is  a  well-known  fact, but
almost everybody  believes  that  it was the people
of  Israel  who  received  their  system  of weights
and   measures  from  one  or  the  other  of  their


(Id.   pp.   362–368),  while  its  geometry,  which  is  the  reason  for
the   symbolical   meaning   of   the   hexagram,  was  forgotten,  see
above  Notearrow19.
            42)   This  happened  in  the  days  of  the  Babylonian  Exile,
as   can   be   seen   from   the   writings   of   the   prophet   Ezekiel,
cf.   Bashan   (N.   3)   at   379,   382,  and  383.  That  the  long  cubit
of seven handbreadths or about 52.1 cm cannot be the original one
is   obvious   because  of  human  anatomy,  for  a  cubit  of  around
44.6   cm   corresponds   to   a   human   being   of   medium   height,
whereas  a  cubit  of  some  52.1  cm  belongs  to  a  giant.


Mosaical  Metrology

neighbors.43)  while  it  actually  is  the  other  way
around.  Who  copied  whom  can now be proven
with   mathematical   precision  after  having  suc-
ceeded   in  discovering  the  system  of  Mosaical
metrology,  which  bears the earmark of its author
consisting   of   the  two  stone  tablets  of  Moses
characterized   by   their   measurements  and  the
specific  gravity  of  granite.44)  These hitherto un-
known   dataarrow(0.15   and   2.7)  are  the  key  to
Israelite  metrology  permitting,  for the first time,
to   calculate  the  volume  of  an  Omer  and  the
weight  of  a  Beka  from  the  length  of  a  cubit,
and  vice  versa.45) 
       §  16.  While  the  Greek  talent  weighs  less
than  a  Kikar,  both  are  divided  into  60 Manah
(Greek  “mna”),  which  are  subdivided  into 100


            43)   Cf.   Bashan   (N.   3)   at  377,  and  382.  Whether  from
Egypt,   from   pre-Israelite   Canaan,   or   from   Mesopotamia,  the
insistence  upon a foreign , non-Israelite origin reflects anti-Jewish
prejudice:   In   an  unbiased,  scientific  discussion  the  people  of
Israel  should  always  have  been  one  of the main candidates for
the origin of ancient weights and measures as well as the alphabet.
            44)  See  TORAH OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1) p. 50 footnote.
            45)  Ibid.


Ed  Metzler

Beka  (Greek  “drachma”).46)  The  Hebrew  word
Manah   “portion”   as   well   as  the  geometrical
method  of  subdivision  implying  the  theorem of
Pythagoras,   who  reportedly  owed  his  theories
(Hebrew   “Torah”)   to   the  Jews,  indicate  that
it  was  borrowed  from  Israel  together  with the
alphabet   several   centuries  before  the  classical
Greek  period.47)  Greeks  always  claimed to have
received   their  alphabet  from  Phoenicia,  which
is Canaan and practically synonymous with Israel


            46)   Cf.   Becher   in   Pauly-Wissowa,  Realencyclopädie  der
classischen  Altertumswissenschaft,  v.  Mna.  The  Euboean  talent
(Greek  talanton  “scale”)  introduced  by Solon in Athens weighed
26.2   kilograms,   but   there   were   different   talents   in   Greece  at
different  times  and  places.  The Golden Fleece of Greek mythology
is  a  literal  translation  of  the  Hebrew  Tzinah  Zahav (cf. Notes 30,
and  37  supra),  which  is  the  weight  of  one of the Ten Command-
ments,   i.  e.  one  Davar  “line”  plus  the  empty  space  between  it
and  the  next  line  (cf.  Note  20  supra),  or  one tenth of the weight
of   the   two  tablets  of  the  law  of  the  Torah  of  Moses  from  the
Sinai  (1200  Beka  “drachma”  =  7.2  kilograms).
            47)  See  above  Note  16.  The  transfer of Israelite know-how
was  aarrowcultural  package,  because  the Torah “teaching” of Moses
from   the   Sinai   is   an   elementary   course   of  general  education
containing a variety of subjects, such as reading, writing, arithmetic,
geometry,   weights,   and   measures,   taught   with   the  aid  of  the
first  document  in  alphabetical  script  –  the  Tablets  of the Law in
the  Ark  of  the  Covenant,  cf.  TORAH OF THE ALPHABET (N. 1)
p.  23,  and  pp.arrow40–99.


Mosaical  Metrology

during   its   golden   age  under  King  Solomon.48) 
Thus,  when  Herodotus  wrote  that  the “Phoeni-
cians”  originally  came  from  the  Red  Sea to the
Mediterranean, he obviously referred to the people
of  Israel  and  their  Exodus  from  Egypt,  which
led   through   the  Red  Sea  and  by  Elat  on  the
Red  Sea.49) 
       §  17.  The  northern Canaanite city of Ugarit
located   on   the   Mediterranean   coast  of  Syria
close  to  the  Turkish border used a Kikar divided
into  3000  Shekel,50)  and  a  cuneiform adaptation
of  the  alphabet,  which has the same alphabetical
order,  except  for  some  additional  letters,  as all


            48)  Cf.  Herodotus,  Histories,  V, 58.  According  to  Greek
mythology  Kadmos,  the  legendary  founder of Thebes, was the
first Phoenician to bring the alphabet to Greece, and his daughter
Ino  is  connected  with  the  famous  gold  robbery of the Golden
Fleece,  which  was a treasure of 7.2 kilograms (cf. Note 46 supra).
After  this  monetary  unit  of  Solomonic  Israel became obsolete
in  Greece,  it  was  the  source  of mythological inspiration. – The
retranslation  of  “Golden  Fleece”  into  modern  Hebrew  is Gizat
meaning the wool that has been cut (Gazaz), while Tzinah
is  the  skin  of  a  sheep  with  the  wool  on  it.
            49)  Cf.  Herodotus,  Histories,  VII, 89;  Exodus  15, 4,  and
Deuteronomy  2,  8.
            50)  See  Claude F. A. Schaeffer,  The  Cuneiform  Texts of
Ras  Shamra–Ugarit  (London  1939)  p.  27.


Ed  Metzler

the   other   alphabets   in  the  strict  sense  of  the
word.51)   Like   fingerprints   both   may   be  used
for   purposes   of  identification.  But  while  there
are   fingerprints   of   only   billions  of  people  on
earth,  there  are  billions  of  thousands  of billions
(22!)   of   possibilities  of  arranging  22  letters  in
different  orders.52) 
       §   18.   This  means  that  Ugarit  must  have
imitated  Israel,  because  we  know  since the dis-
covery   of   the   system   of  Mosaical  metrology
based  on  the  reconstruction of the two tablets of
Moses in my book TORAH OF THE ALPHABET
that  the  number  of  3000  Shekel  as  well as the
one  and  only  alphabetical  order are distinctively
Israelite  in  every  detail.53)  Thus  a  correction of


            51)   Cf.   Cyrus   Herzl   Gordon,   Ugaritic  Textbook  (Rome
1965)   pp.   52   and   53.   –   The   so-called  Ethiopian  “alphabet”,
in  spite  of  its  Sinaitic origin, is not an alphabet in the strict sense
of  the  word,  because  it  was  never  brought  into an alphabetical
order,   see   TORAH   DES   ALPHABETS,  Rekonstruktion  der  2
Tafeln  von  Moses  im  Ur-Alphabet
,  (N.  1) 2nd German ed. (1984)
ISBN 3-924448-30-2  p.  20  footnote.
            52)    Cf.    TORAH   OF   THE   ALPHABET   (N.   1)   p.   53.
            53)   Ibid.   p.   48.   For   example,   the   letters  Alef  and  Bet
were  placed  at  the  top  of  the  alphabetical  order,  because they


Mosaical  Metrology

ancient   chronology   becomes  more  imperative
than   ever:   The   last  two  centuries  of  Ugarit
before   its   final  destruction  are  contemporary
with   the   first   two   centuries  of  the  Israelite
monarchy  (ca.  1030–830  B. C. E.),  and hence
also  eighteenth-dynasty  Egypt  is  contemporary
with both, as Immanuel Velikovsky wrote already
in   1952   in  his  book  “From  Exodus  to  King


are  the  initials  of  the  first  and second lines of the first document
in   alphabetical   script  –  the  2  tablets  of  Moses  from  the  Sinai.
Similarly,  the  reason  for  dividing  the  weight  of  a tablet (Kikar)
into   3000   Shekel   is  to  be  found  in  the  geometrical  properties
of   the   tablets,   which   are   divided   into   150  cubic  letter-units
by  using  the  Pythagorean  numbers  3,  4,  and  5.
            54)   Boycotting   this   excellent   book  is  a  most  shameful
scandal   for   the   sciences  and  scientists  involved,  in  particular
William   F.  Albright,  whose  influence  played  an  important  role
in  suppressing  it  from  academic  discussion, cf. Alfred de Grazia,
The    Velikovsky    Affair    (German   1979)   p.   49.   According   to
Immanuel  Velikovsky  (Op. cit. supra, chapter 3) e. g. the so-called
Queen  of  Sheba (Malkat Sheba = Malkah Hatsheba) is identical
with Hatshepsut, see Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, VIII, 6,
who  writes  that  King  Solomon’s  famous  visitor  was  the queen
of  Egypt  and  Ethiopia,  which  places  the  Exodus  at  the  end of
the  Middle  Kingdom  (above  Notearrow14).


Ed  Metzler

Mosaical Rectangle [KLMN]
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]
Mosaical Rectangle

measuring  2  cubits  by  1.5  and  2.5  cubits dia-
gonally,   consisting  of  the  2  tablets  of  Moses,
and  anticipating  the  theorem  of  Pythagoras by
about  900  years. These measurements, of course,
represent the so-called Pythagorean numbers 3, 4,
and  5  divided  by  2, facilitating the division of
a  cubit  into  6  handbreadths  (p.  27)  and  into
10  lines  (p.  28),  rendering the hexagram as an
auxiliary  construction  (p.  29), and resulting in
the   ancient   system  of  weights  and  measures.


Mosaical  Metrology

Mosaical Pyramid
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]
Mosaical Pyramid

measuring  2.25  cubits  in  height and 1.5 at the
base, dividing into 3 handbreadths the half-cubit
between   the  2  tablets  of  Moses  in  their  box
of   2.5   cubits   by  1.5.  Since  there  are  three
half-cubits  at  the  bottom  of the pyramid, there
are   also  three  equal  parts  where  it  cuts  the
parallel  on  the  other  side  of  the  box.


Ed  Metzler

Mosaical Pyramid
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]
Mosaical Pyramid

measuring  2.5  cubits  in  height  as  well as at
the  base,  dividing  the  cubit  at  the  top  edge
of  one  of  the  2  tablets of Moses into 10 equal
parts.  The  Mosaical cubit is the space between
the  elbow  and  the  tip  of the middle finger of
Moses, which became the prototype of measures
telling us how tall he was.


Mosaical  Metrology

Mosaical Hexagram
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]
Mosaical Hexagram

drawing  10  lines  (Devarim)  on the 2 tablets of
the  law  of  the  Torah  of  Moses from the Sinai.


Ed  Metzler

Mosaical Fractions
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]
Mosaical Fractions

or   the  broken  tablets  of  Moses  consisting  of  one
Omer-column   of   10   Manah-stones   (500   Shekel)
wrapped   in   a   little   fleece   (Tzintzenet),  laid  in
front of the first tablet [right], and of 2 stone columns
of   15   cubes   of   0.1    cubit   each   (600   Shekel)
wrapped   in   a   bigger   fleece   (Tzinah),   used  as
weight-stones  as  well  as  for  packing  the 2 tablets
of   Moses   within   their   box,  leaving  almost  one
centimeter   for   each   of   the  6  spaces  cushioned
by  fleece  [marked  blue].


Mosaical  Metrology

Mosaical Hexagram
[The printed graphics were replaced by their equivalents from this website]
Mosaical Hexagram

dividing  into  3  Omer-columns  the  space  of half
a   cubit   between   the   2   tablets   of   Moses   in
their  box  of 2.5  cubits  by  1.5.


By    the    same    author:
–   at   USA-$   20.–   per   issue   –

Discovering   the  System  of  Mosaical  Metrology
arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 1 = ISBN 3-924448-03-5 
Discovering  the  Three-Dimensional  Structure  of
the  Ten  Commandments

arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 2 = ISBN 3-924448-04-3 
Discovering   the   Two-Dimensional  Structure  of
the  Alphabetical  Order

arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 3 = ISBN 3-924448-05-1 
Discovering   the   Mosaical   Roots   of  Kabbalah

arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 4 = ISBN 3-924448-06-X 
Discovering  the  Israelite  Identity  of the Pyramid

arrowAMMM VOL. 1, NO. 5 = ISBN 3-924448-07-8 
Conflict  of  Laws in the Israelite Dynasty of Egypt

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 1 = ISBN 3-924448-09-4 
The   Impact   of   Israel   on  Western  Philosophy

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 2 = ISBN 3-924448-10-8 
The  Mosaical  Roots of European Musical Theory

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 3 = ISBN 3-924448-11-6 
On  Mosaical  Matrixes  and  the Metzler Formula

arrowAMMM VOL. 2, NO. 4 = ISBN 3-924448-12-4 
        “The    author    attempts   to   reconstruct   the
inscription   on   the   Tablets   of   the  Law,  and  to
prove  the  priority  and  centrality  of Hebrew script
in  the  world  history  of  writing.”

Bibliographical   Quarterly   of   thearrowJewish   National
and   University   Library   in   Jerusalem,   Israel,
VOL.   60,   NO.   1–2   (1986)   pp.   287–88,   *3045–47.

ISBN  3-924448-03-5
Brazen Sea

ELIYAHU MOZIANI’s Virtual Jerusalem Home: Welcome! | Mosaistics: Science of Mosaical Law and Antiquity, OVERVIEW

Go to Dr. Ed Metzler’s Online REPRINTS!
– with this simple URL: http://go.to/Dr.Ed –

- KALIA™ — The Polynesian Web Ringฎ -
[ Join Now | Ring Hub | Random | << Prev | Next >> ]

© All rights reserved - Alle Rechte vorbehalten
by Dr. Ewald (Ed) Metzler-Moziani.

You are visitor no.
learning meditation
on this website.