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The House of David [DUD] is identical with that of the Thutmosids.

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How   fair   is  thy  love,  my  sister,
my   spouse!  how  much  better  is
thy  love than wine! and the smell
of thine ointments than all spices!


Solomon’s  Song  of  Songs  4,  10


CHAPTER VI

Conflict of Laws in the Israelite Dynasty of Egypt*

by Dr. Ed Metzler


Dr. Metzler-Moziani (Photo), The Metzler Formula

       §   1.  There  is  an  Ethiopian  and  a  Libyan
dynasty,  a Persian and a Greek dynasty of ancient
Egypt,  why  not  an  Israelite  dynasty?  After  all,
it   is   a  geopolitical  fact  that  desert-surrounded
Egypt,   an    isolated  oasis  along  the  Nile  river,
has   always   had   Israel  as  its  most  prominent
eastern  neighbor  in  peace and war. Whether one

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            *Dedicated  to  the  former  Lord  High  Chancellor of England,
the  Rt.  Hon.  Lord Hailsham of  St. Marylebone, KG, CH, FRS, DCL,
whose   interest   in   my  work  encouraged  me  to  write  this  article.
[See  Professor  Dr.  Rivka  Ulmer,  Discovering  Mosaistics, Israel’s
Egyptian   roots      a   Book   Review,   in   Bulletin   of   the  Israeli
Academic   Center   in   Cairo  ·  no.  18  ·  January   1994,   pp.   2426
:
“. . .  Metzler  even  goes  one  step  further  (than  Velikovsky): King
Solomon of the Bible is the Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmosis II and King
David  is  Thutmosis  I.  The  Thutmosids,  claims  Metzler, represent
the Israelite dynasty of  Egypt.” (p. 25).]

[3]


 
[32]  
Ed  Metzler
  

turns east from modern Cairo or its ancient suburb
of  Heliopolis,  the  biblical  On, neighboring Israel
is  next  by  way of land from the Egyptian capital,
where  the  isthmus  of  Suez  connects  the north-
eastern  corner  of  Africa  with  Asia,  and  can be
reached  on  either side of this land-bridge over the
Mediterranean   or   Red   Sea.  Yet,  the  Israelite
dynasty  of  Egypt  was  unheard-of,  before I first
mentioned  it  at  the  end  of my last book entitled
“DISCOVERING  MOSAISTICS, Introduction to
the  Scientific  Study  of  the  Law  of  Moses  and
Mosaical  Antiquity
.”1)
       §  2.  The  Israelite  dynasty of Egypt, if there
ever  was  one, had to cope with Conflict of Laws.
This is a subject taught in almost every law-school

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            1)   Cf.   Ed   Metzler,   DISCOVERING   MOSAISTICS,   Intro-
duction  to  the  Scientific  Study of the Law of Moses and Mosaical
Antiquity
,  Cumulative  Reprint  of  AMMM  (Archives for Mosaical
Metrology  and  Mosaistics)  vol.  1,  nos. 15 with forewords by the
Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Hailsham  of  St.  Marylebone,  KG,  CH,  FRS,  DCL,
formerly   Lord   High   Chancellor   of   England,   and   by  Professor
Emeritus   Dr.   Johann   Knobloch,   University   of  Bonn,  Germany
(Herborn   1989)   p.  200  Note  32:  “Eighteenth-dynasty  Egypt  may
evolve  as  the  Israelite dynasty, ushered in by King Saul’s marriage
to   the   daughter   of  Ahmosis,  the  biblical  Achima‘atz,  and  King
David’s identity with Thutmosis I: Dhwty-ms is David the Messiah!”

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Conflict  of  Laws
  [33]

around  the  world,  also  known  as  Private Inter-
national   Law.2)  Its  typical  problems  arise  from
foreign  trade  and  cross-cultural marriages, as are
reported   about   King   Solomon   in  the  Bible.3)
Ancient  Egypt  permitted  marriages between bro-
ther  and  sister  in  conjunction  with  the  law  of
matrilineal succession. Thus the kingdom of Egypt
was   inherited   by   the   eldest   daughter  of  the
pharaoh,   who   had  to  marry  her  own  brother
in  order  to  continue the dynasty.4) If she married
an   outsider,  a  new  dynasty  began,  and  if  the
outsider  was  a  foreigner from Israel, it would be

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            2)  See Herbert F. Goodrich,-Eugene F. Scoles, Handbook of
the  Conflict  of  Laws  (St.  Paul,  Minn.  1964)  §  5.  In  spite  of  the
name  of  the  subject,  which  suggests  a  struggle of colliding legal
systems,  today  there  usually  is no such violent clash, unless laws
differ   so   fundamentally  as  to  offend  public  policy  in  the  other
jurisdiction  or  even  to  constitute  a  criminal  offense.  In antiquity
this  was  the  case,  if  incestuous marriages were permissible in one
country  and  prohibited  in  another.
            3)   His   commercial   relations   with   Europe   (from   Hebrew
ha-‘Ereb   “the  evening”  or  “the  West”,  not  “Arabia”)  extended
as  far  as  Tartessus  (Tarshish)  in  southern  Spain, cf. 1. Kings 10,
15  and  22).  On  his  international  marriages  see below Note 7; and
Ed  Metzler,  Discovering  Mosaistics  (N.  1)  p.arrow182,  where I first
mentioned  that  King  Solomon  is  identical  with  Thutmosis  II, the
husband   of  Queen  Hatshepsut-Sheba,  and  that  conflict  of  laws
led  to  her  departure.  If  so, it is the central problem of the dynasty.
            4)  On  the  conflict  of  matrilineal society with the patriarchal

[5]


 
[34]  
Ed  Metzler
  

the  Israelite  dynasty.  However,  such an Israelite
dynasty  of  Egypt  might  be  short-lived, since in-
cestuous  marriages  were  strictly prohibited under
biblical  law.5) 


A.  Conflict  of  Laws  in  the  Marriage
of  Queen  Hatshepsut-Sheba  and
King  Solomon-Thutmosis  II

       §  3. Let us begin with King Solomon, because
the  Bible  clearly  says  that  “Pharaoh’s daughter”
(1.  Kings  3,  1)  was “Solomon’s  wife” (1. Kings

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system   in   the  Old  Hittite  Kingdom,  which  is  contemporary  with
the  eighteenth  or  Israelite  dynasty  of  Egypt,  cf.  O.  R.  Gurney in
Cambridge  Ancient  History  II,  1  (1989)  pp.  6678:  “The recorded
dynastic  disturbances  would  then  represent  the  struggle between
two  ways  of  life,”  or  rather the conflict between two legal systems;
and  Johann  Jakob  Bachofen, Mutterrecht und Urreligion (Stuttgart
1984)  pp.  30136  on  the  same  conflict  in  India.
            5)   See   Leviticus   18,  9  and  11;  Deuteronomy  27,  22;  and
Ed Metzler, Discovering Mosaistics (N. 1) p. 182 Notearrow48. However
in  matrilineal  society  a  sister  is legally unrelated to her half-brother
from   a   different   mother,   fatherhood   being   either   unknown   or
irrelevant  anyway.  Marriages  between  brother and sister happened
in  the  other  foreign  dynasties  of  Egypt,  too.  Thus,  the Ptolemies
adopted  this  Egyptian  custom  from Ptolemy II Philadelphus down
to  Cleopatra,  as  did  Cambyses,  cf.  Herodotus, Histories, III, 312.

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Conflict  of  Laws
  [35]

9,  16). Although he loved “many foreign women”
(1.  Kings  11,  1),  she  was  first  in rank and his
only  peer,  for  whom  he  built  a  special  palace
next  to  his  own  (1.  Kings  7,  8).6) When it was
finished,  she  moved  in  (1.  Kings  9,  24).  The
opening  words  of the following chapter introduce
her  by  name  as  the  so-called  Queen  of Sheba
(1.  Kings  10,  1).  That  the  Bible  is still talking
about  the  same  person,  may  be  inferred  from
the  context,  because “Pharaoh’s daughter” is the
last  woman  mentioned  in  the preceding chapter
and  the  first  in  the  next.7)  Moreover, the space

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            6) The palace (Bayit) of “Pharaoh’s daughter” was known as
Sheba’s  Harem” or Mussakh (Kere for Missakh) ha-Shabat (LXX:
ha-Shebet),  cf.  2. Kings 16, 18; and Samuel Klein in Encyclopaedia
Judaica  vol.  8  (1931)  at  1124.  Like  Hebrew  Sukkah  “tabernacle”
Mussakh  “hideaway”,  “harem”  or  “apartment”  is  a  derivative of
Sakhakh  “to  screen  off”,  “to  cover with twigs” or “to hide”, and
stands  for  the  private  quarters of  Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba, alias
Regina   Saba,   see  below  text  accompanying Notearrow10. Not only
was  Sheba’s  Harem changed by King Achaz of Judah “because of
the  King  of  Assyria”  (cf. Notearrow17 infra), but also the Brazen Sea
in  the  temple  of  King  Solomon,  which  stood  upon  twelve bulls
(1.  Kings  7,  2326),  was  stripped  by  Achaz, who “took down the
sea  from  off  the  brazen  bulls  that  were  under it, and put it upon
a  pavement  of  stones”  (2.  Kings  16,  17).
            7)   Cf.   1.   Kings   11,   1:  “But  King  Solomon  loved  many
foreign   women,   together   with   the   daughter  of  Pharaoh,”  and
Ed   Metzler,   Discovering   Mosaistics   (N.   1)   p.  174  Notearrow32.

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Ed  Metzler
  

allotted  to  her in the historical books of the Bible
leads  to  the  conclusion  that  Sheba  is the name
of  none  other  than  “Pharaoh’s  daughter”, King
Solomon’s  queen.8)
       §  4.  In  Jewish  tradition,  Sheba has always
been  understood  as  the proper name of a queen,
not   as  her  land  of  origin,  and  from  Josephus
Flavius
  we  learn  that she was the ruler of Egypt
and  Ethiopia,  as  Queen  Hatshepsut was, who is
the  only  woman  to have remained on the throne
of  Egypt  for  an  extended  period  of time.9) The
central  hieroglyph  in  her name is Sheps meaning

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            8)  Spacewise,  (the)  Queen  (of) Sheba ranks with King Omri
of  Israel  (1.  Kings  10,  113;  and 16, 1628), so thatarrowher story is
more  than  “a  fanciful oriental legend”, as James B. Pritchard (ed.),
Solomon  and  Sheba  (London  1974), Introduction p. 12 calls it; but
see Ed Metzler, Discovering Mosaistics (N. 1) p. 174. Whereas King
Solomon’s  700  wives  and  300  concubines  (1. Kings 11, 3) are not
known  by  name  except  for  Naamah  of  Ammon  (1. Kings 14, 21),
his  highest  ranking  wife  Sheba  is  well  attested.
            9)   Cf.   Lou  H.  Silberman,  The  Queen  of  Sheba  in  Judaic
Tradition,  in  Pritchard  (N.  8)  p. 67; and Josephus Flavius, Jewish
Antiquities,  VIII,  6.  Queen  Hatshepsut  reigned  for  22  years,  see
Siegfried   Schott,   Zum   Krönungstag   der   Königin  Hatschepsut
(Göttingen  1955)  p.  216.arrowProtected  by  her  divorced  husband in
Israel  (below  Notes  14 andarrow52), she alone was able to rule Egypt
for  so  long  in  peace.  Had  he  died  young,  she  would soon have
become  “the prey of a political adventurer”, see Kurt Mendelssohn,
The   Riddle   of  the  Pyramids  (London  1974)  pp.  312.

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Conflict  of  Laws
  [37]

“noble   seated   on  chair”,  and  corresponding  to
Hebrew  Shebet  “sit”  whence  Sheba or to Shabat
“rest”   whence   Regina   Saba,  as  Saint  Jerome
calls   her.10)   In   Ethiopian   tradition,   her   name
is  Makeda,  which  is  derived  from  Hatshepsut’s
prenomen   Maatkare.  Mistaking  its  initial  hiero-
glyph,  the  goddess  Maat  for  the  goddess Neith,
yields  the  name  Neithkare,  whence  Nitokris  as
Herodotus  calls  Egypt’s  only  queen  or  Nikaule
as  Josephus  Flavius  calls Queen Hatshepsut, the
biblical  Queen  of  Sheba.11)

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            10)  In  the  Vulgate  Regina  Saba  (not  Sabae “of  Saba”), like
the  Basilissa  Saba  of  the  Septuagint,  is  the female counterpart of
Solomon  Rex,  both  representing  personal  rather than geographical
names.  For  a  good  example  of  her  name in hieroglyphic script, see
Siegfried   Schott  (N.  9)  plate  1.  The  triliteral  hieroglyph  Sheps  in
ha(t)-Shepsu(t)  corresponds  to  Hebrew  Shebet  “sit”  as  in Shebet
Achim  gam-Yachad
  (Psalms  133,  1),  ancient  Egyptian  and Hebrew
being closely related languages. On Queen Shabat cf. Raphael Patai,
The  Hebrew  Goddess  (1967)  pp.  24669.
            11)  Cf.  Edward  Ullendorff,  The  Queen of Sheba in Ethiopian
Tradition,   in   Pritchard   (N.  8)  p.  110.arrowMakeda  is  derived  from
Maa(t)kare,   since   the   final   “t”  of  the  first  syllable  may  be  left
unpronounced,   and   ancient  Egyptian  “r”  as  in  modern  Japanese
must   have   sounded  very  much  like  “d”  or  “l”,  see  C.  J.  Dunn,-
S.    Yanada
,   Japanese   (London   1977)   p.   3.   Similarly,   Josephus
Flavius
,  Jewish  Antiquities,  VIII,  6  drops  the  “t” in Ni(t)kare and
renders   its   “r”   as   “l”,  while  Herodotus,  Histories,  II,  100  whom
he  quotes  preserves  these  consonants.  The vowels are no problem
(ei  =  i  and  au  =  o  for  a),  apart  from  a  metathesis  here and there.

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[38]  
Ed  Metzler
  

       §  5.  Queen  Hatshepsut  had  only  one child,
a  daughter  by  the  name  of  Nofru-Re  from  her
husband   pharaoh  Thutmosis  II.  Of  course,  she
is   generally  dated  some  550  years  earlier  than
King   Solomon   and   the   Queen  of  Sheba,  but
Egyptology  is  a  rather  modern  field dealing with
a  very  ancient  subject,  and  may  be mistaken.12)
If  Queen  Hatshepsut  is  identical with the biblical
Queen  of  Sheba,  then  King  Solomon is pharaoh
Thutmosis  II, and Israel is God’s Land Punt to the
east   of   Egypt,  where  she  went  to  marry  him,
not  to  visit  a  sister,  whom  she  did  not have.13)
Since  her  little  girl  had  no future under the laws
of   Israel,  while  in  Egypt  she  could  marry  her

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            12)   Cf.   Sir   Wallis   Budge,  The  Mummy,  A  Handbook  of
Egyptian   Funerary   Archaeology  (London  1987)  pp.  156  on  the
Sothic  Period  theory  of  the  German  school: “Nowhere in the hiero-
glyphic  texts  is  there  any  mention  of  such  a period. And with the
annual  Inundation  to guide the Egyptians in their agricultural affairs
such  a  period  would  be wholly unnecessary.” Budge continues by
quoting approvingly Cecil Torr, Memphis and Mycenae, reprinted in
1988  by  the  Journal  of  the  Ancient  Chronology  Forum.
            13) On herarrowsister Nefru-Biti, who had already died as a child,
cf.  Siegfried  Schott  (N. 9) p. 196. God’s Land (ha-Aretz Asher ha-El
=  Eretz  Israel)
  or  Punt, whence Phoenicia (Canaan), extended from
Byblos  to  the  Sinai,  see  Elmar  Edel,  Beiträge zu den ägyptischen
Sinaiinschriften  (Göttingen  1983)  p.  181.

[10]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [39]

half-brother  Thutmosis  III,  a son of Hatshepsut’s
maidservant Isis, making him pharaoh by marriage,
they   separated   and  she  returned  home  to  rule
Egypt  as  Chnemet-Amon,  i. e.  Mrs. Solomon for
the  next  twenty  odd  years.14) 


B.  Conflict  of  Laws  in  the  Marriage
of  King  David-Thutmosis  I  and
Queen  Achinoam-Ahhotep

       §   6.   King  David  was  the  father  of  King
Solomon,   as   Thutmosis   I   was   the  father  of
Thutmosis  II.  If  King  Solomon  is  Thutmosis II,

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            14)   In   Egyptian  Amon  simply  means  “to  hide”,  and  may
refer   either   to   the   sun   god  Re,  hidden  at  midnight,  or  to  the
physical   presence   (Shekhinah)   of   YaHUH,   hidden  in  the  Ark
of  the  Covenant  in  the  Holy  of  Holies of the Solomonic temple in
Jerusalem  (1.  Kings  8,  12).  Hence  King  Solomon (she-El Amon or
shel   Amon)   is   called   Jedidiah   in   Hebrew   (2.  Samuel  12,  25),
i.  e.   “friend”   of   YaHUH,   the   hidden   god,   Deus   Absconditus
or   Amon   Re   of   the   eighteenth   or   Israelite  dynasty  of  Egypt.
The  word  Amon  may  also  refer  to  the  “hidden”  or  absent  King
Solomon-Thutmosis   II,   who   is   conspicuous  by  his  absence  in
Egyptian   history,   and   generally   believed   to  have  died  young
after   begettingarrowThutmosis   III   and   Nofru-Re,   while  in  fact  he
had  made  Jerusalem  his  residence.

[11]


 
[40]  
Ed  Metzler
  

then  King  David  is  Thutmosis  I, and the House
of  David  is  identical with that of the Thutmosids,
which   may   be   called  the  Israelite  dynasty  of
Egypt.  And,  indeed,  if  we  compare the Hebrew
spelling  of  David  (DUD  or  DOD)  with the hie-
roglyphic   spelling   of   Thutmosis   or   Thothmes
(Dhwty-ms), we can see that it actually is the same
name rendered in different languages and scripts.15)
Its  last  syllable  stands  for  Messiah, part of King
David’s  official  title,  meaning  the  “anointed”.16)
King  David  was  buried  in  the  city of David, as
Thutmosis  I  was buried in the Valley of the Kings
near  Thebes,  Egypt.17)  The  Greek  name  of this

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            15)  In  Hebrew  the  vowels  “a” and “i” of David are omitted,
and  “v”  is  also  “u”  and “o”. As in Ptah, final h may stand for “a”.
            16)  Of  course,  the  biliteral  hieroglyph mes means “child” in
Egyptian,  but  may  be  used  to  write  Hebrew  “Messiah”.
            17)   Cf.   1.   Kings  2,  10;  John  Romer,  Ancient  Lives,  The
Story   of  the  Pharaohs’  Tombmakers  (London  1984)  p.  207;  and
Claude   Vandersleyen,   Das  alte  Ägypten  (Frankfurt  1985)  p.  46.
The  identity  of  the  city  of  David  with  Thebes,  Egypt, is proven
by  the  fact  that  the  tradition  of  burying  the  kings  of  Jerusalem
there  continued  for  over  two  centuries,  and  was interrupted only
by  the  Assyrian  conquest  of  Israel and Egypt. Therefore, the last
king  to  be buried in the city of David (Thebes) was Achaz (2. Kings
16,  20),  while  his  son and successor Hezekiah was not. Beginning
with  Manasseh  (2.  Kings  21,  18)  the  kings  of Judah were buried
in  the  park  of  their  palace  in  Jerusalem.

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Conflict  of  Laws
  [41]

city  and  of  its  Boeotian  namesake  founded by
Kadmos   is   nothing  but  the  Greek  spelling  of
Egyptian  Dhw-(ty)  or  Hebrew  David.18)
       §  7.  The  city  of  David  or Thebes, Egypt,
is  where Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba lived, until her
husband  King  Solomon-Thutmosis II “had made
an   end   of   building   his  own  house,  and  the
house   of  YaHUH,  and  the  wall  of  Jerusalem
round  about” (1. Kings 3, 1).19) From Thebes she
went  to  its  Red  Sea port of Kosseir, the biblical

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            18)  The  first  hieroglyph  of  Dhw-  corresponds  to  the affri-
cated  Tzadi  in  Hebrew,  which  stood  for the voiced and voiceless
“th”-sound in the original Mosaical alphabet, cf. Sir Alan Gardiner,
Egyptian  Grammar  (Oxford  1982)  p.  27;  Ed  Metzler,  Discovering
Mosaistics  (N.  1)  pp.  878  and  1123;  Richard C. Steiner, Affri-
cated  Sade  in  the  Semitic  Languages  (New  York 1982) p. 40. The
second  hieroglyph  h  corresponds  to Hebrew Chet, which became
Eta  in  the Greek alphabet, and is responsible for the “e” in Thebes.
Its  intervocalic  Beta  derives  from the third hieroglyph w. The next
two  hieroglyphs  -ty are the Egyptian (and Hebrew construct) suffix
for  the  feminine  dual,  rendered  by the Greek feminine dual ending
-ai  of  Thebai  (Latin  Thebae),  cf.  Gardiner  (loc.  cit.  p.  58);  and
Anna Morpurgo Davies, Mycenaean and Greek Language, in BCILL
26  (1988)  p.  103  Note  7  with  further  references. As in Agenor for
Achiram,  the  Chet  of  the second hieroglyph, if transliterated by g,
yields  Thegwai,  which  is  the  most  archaic  Greek form of Thebes,
cf.  Yves  Duhoux,  Mycénien  et  écriture grecque, in BCILL 26, p. 67
Note  88;  and J. T. Killen, The Linear B Tablets and the Mycenaean
Economy,  in  BCILL  26  (1988)  p.  269.
            19)   While  under  construction  by  a  work-force  of  183 300
(1.  Kings  5, 2730), Jerusalem wasarrowno place for a princess to live.

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Ed  Metzler
  

Ophir,  whence  King Solomon’s fleet brought her
to  Elat  with her enormous treasures of gold, and
from  there  she came up to Jerusalem by caravan
to   join   her  husband  (1.  Kings  9,  2428  and
10,  110).20)  Since  King David-Thutmosis I was
also  the father of Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba, King
Solomon  refers to her in his Song of Songs (4, 10
et   passim)   as   Achoti  Kallah  “my  sister,  my
spouse!”21) This explains, too, how it was possible
that  the  city  of  Gezer,  which  King David had
conquered,  was given to King Solomon as dowry
of  “Pharaoh’s  daughter”.22)
       §  8.  When  the city of Gezer was destroyed
by David, who killed all its inhabitants, Achinoam
was  already  his  wife,  but  he  was not yet King

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            20)  After  the  completion of the Solomonic Temple the Ark
of the Covenant of YaHUH was also brought to Jerusalem from the
city  of David or Thebes, Egypt (1. Kings 8, 19). Its Greek name is
Zion from Zeus (genitive Dios) or Diospolis for Egyptian No-Amon
(Nahum  3,  8),  while  its  Egyptian name is Jebus (ye-Wus), Uas or
Weset  (2.  Samuel 5, 69), the prefix being an analogy to Jerusalem,
where  it  was  displaced  by  later  tradition.
            21)  On  the  affinity  of  Israeli-Egyptian  love  poetry in the
18th  or  Israelite  dynasty  see  Michael  Fox,  The Song of Songs
and  the  ancient  Egyptian love songs (Madison 1985) pp. 18291.
            22) When David defeated Gezer, he killed all its inhabitants,

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Conflict  of  Laws
  [43]

of   Judah   and   Israel,  because  King  Saul  was
still   alive   (1.  Samuel  27,  311).23)  Hence  it  is
technically   correct  that  the  city  was  conquered
by  the  pharaoh  (1.  Kings  9,  16),  if  she  is  the
pharaoh’s   daughter  who  made  him  pharaoh  by
marriage.   Translating   Achinoam   into   Egyptian
yields  Ahhotep,  for  hotep corresponds to Hebrew
no‘am  “pleasant”.24)  Also  her son’s name Amnon
(2.   Samuel   3,  2),  a  theophoric  contraction  of
Amon-On,  and  the  affair  he  had  with  his  half-
sister   Tamar  are  clearly  Egyptian.  The  conflict
of  laws  becomes  obvious,  when  he  says to her,

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leaving   “neither   man   nor  woman  alive”  (1.  Samuel  27,  8  and  9).
Likewise   the   pharaoh,   whose   daughter   King   Solomon  married,
is   reported   to   have   “gone   up,   and   taken   Gezer,  and  burnt  it
with  fire,  and  slain  the  Canaanites  that  dwelt in the city” (1. Kings
9,   16).   Since  it  was  rebuilt  and  resettled  only  by  King  Solomon
(1.   Kings   9,   15),   King  David-Thutmosis  I  must  be  the  pharaoh,
who  ceded  it  to  him  as  a  wedding  present.  There  is  no  room for
a  foreign  invasion  towards  the  end of King David’s reign, because
“the   Lord  had  given  him  rest  round  about  from  all  his  enemies”
(2.   Samuel   7,   1).  Moreover,  it  does  not  make  sense  to  conquer
a  city  just  to  give  it  away,  as  pointed  out  by Abraham Malamat,
Das davidische und salomonische Königreich und seine Beziehungen
zu   Ägypten  und  Syrien,  Zur  Entstehung  eines  Großreichs  (Wien
1983)  pp.  22  and  24.
            23)  Upon  his  death  David  became King of Judah, and upon
the  murder  of  his  son  King  of  all  Israel  (2.  Samuel  2, 4 and 5, 3).
            24)  He  who  married  King  Saul’s widow  Achinoam-Ahhotep

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[44]  
Ed  Metzler
  

“Come  lie  with  me,  my  sister,” which would be
all  right  in  Egypt, and she answers him, “no such
thing  ought  to  be  done  in Israel” (2. Samuel 13,
11  and  12).25) 


C.  Conflict  of  Laws  in  the  Marriage
of  King  Saul  with  the  Daughter
of  Achimaatz-Ahmosis

       §  9.  King  Saul  was the predecessor of King
David and the first King of Israel, as Amenophis I
was  the  predecessor  of pharaoh Thutmosis I and

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could   claim   the  throne  under  the  law  of  matrilineal  succession,
cf.  Notearrow27 infra. This  is  demonstrated  by  the case of Adonijah,
who  was  executed  for  treason  by  King Solomon, because he had
tried  to  marry  King  David’s  widow  Abishag of Shunem (1. Kings
2,  2225).  Similarly,  King  Saul’s  son  Ish-Boshet,  who reigned for
two   years   (2.   Samuel   2,   10),  felt  challenged  by  Abner’s  affair
with  his  father’s  concubine  Ritzpah  (2.  Samuel  3, 710), possibly
a  daughter  ofarrowAgag  (misspelled as Aiah), the last Amalekite king
defeated  by  King  Saul and executed by the supreme judge Samuel
(1.  Samuel  15,  32  and  33).
            25)  Her  further  suggestion,  “speak unto the king, for he will
not   withhold  me  from  thee”  (2.  Samuel  13,  13),  appears  realistic
in  view  of  the later marriage of King Solomon-Thutmosis II with his
half-sister  Queen  Hatshepsut-Sheba,  whom he calls Achoti Kallah
“my  sister,  my  spouse!”

[16]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [45]

the   first   pharaoh   of  the  eighteenth  or  Israelite
dynasty   of   Egypt.   Since   King  David  is  Thut-
mosis
  I,  King  Saul  must  be Amenophis I.26) This
is  proven  beyond  a reasonable doubt by his wife’s
name,  who  is  known  in  Egyptology  as Ahhotep,
the   daughter  of  pharaoh  Ahmosis  I,  and  in  the
Bible   as   Achinoam,  the  daughter  of  Achimaatz
(1.  Samuel  14,  50), which is absolutely identical.27)
Like  Julius Caesar and Cleopatra a thousand years
later,  King  Saul was the outsider who got a chance
to  marry  into  the  Egyptian  dynasty,  after he had

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            26)   After   King   Saul   had  defeated  the  Hyksos-Amalekites,
he   made   their   former   stronghold   Bet-Shean   his   residence,  first
mentioned   on   the   topographical   lists   of   Thutmosis  III,  where  it
is  spelled  Bet  she’Il,  which  is  the  defective  spelling  of Bet Sha’ul,
cf.  Anton  Jirku,  Ägyptische  Listen  (1967)  p.  16.  In  later lists (Ibid.
pp.  33  and  47)  the  Hebrew  relative  pronoun she (short for Asher) is
translated  by  the  Egyptian  indirect  genitive en-Re, ancient Egyptian
like  modern  Japanese  being  a  language,  which has no “L” (El), and
renders   it   by   “R”  (Re).  Hence  the  name  of  this  pyramid-like  hill
(Gibeah)   with   the  fortress  of  King  Saul  (Bet  Sha’ul)  on  its  top
(1.   Samuel   15,   34   and   31,   10)   may  be  translated  into  Egyptian
as  the  house  of  the  sun  god  Re  (Helios  = ha-El) or Amon, who is
“pleased”  (hotep)  with  its  owner  King Saul, whose name is likewise
translated    into    Egyptian    as    Amenhotep   or   Amenophis   I.   His
daughter’s name Mikal (Michal) = Maa(t)kare (Michael), the wife of
King   David-Thutmosis   I,   was  found  on  a  stela  at  Bet  Shean,  cf.
Jirku  (loc.  cit.  p.  16).  From  its  acropolis  (Ramah) she let him down
through   a   window,   when   he   fled   (1.   Samuel  19,  12  and  22,  6).
            27)  The  double  “a”  in  Achimaatz  as  in  ha-Ba‘al (= Apollo)

[17]


 
[46]  
Ed  Metzler
  

been  victorious  as  a  general  or dictator (Nagid)
of  an  old,  but  dying  republic.  It was King Saul
who  defeated  the  Hyksos,  whom the Bible calls
Amalekites,   as   the  great  Immanuel  Velikovsky
recognized.28)
       §  10. Although King Saul had three sons and
two  daughters  from his Egyptian wife (1. Samuel
14,   49),   conflict  of  laws  prevented  him  from
establishing  his  own  dynasty.29) Under the law of
matrilineal  succession,  whoever  married his first-
born  daughter Merab would become his successor

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is  the  Hebrew  letter  ‘Ayin  “eye”,  the  vowel  O of later alphabets,
while  the  final  Tzadi  stood  for  an  (affricated)  “s”-sound by this
time,  cf.  Ed  Metzler,  Discovering Mosaistics (N. 1) p. 112 Note 33,
and  p.  121  Note  53;  Steiner  (N.  18)  p.  40.  The  first  syllable  of
Ahmosis  (’A‘h-ms)  contains  the  ’Alef  and  Chet (h) of Achimaatz
as  well  as  its  Yod  “hand”  corresponding to the hieroglyph ‘Ayin
“forearm  with  grasping  hand”,  see  Gardiner  (N. 18) pp. 454 D 36,
and  486  N  12; Eliyahu Moziani, pen-name for Ewald (Ed) Metzler,
TORAH   OF   THE   ALPHABET  or  How  the  Art  of  Writing  was
Taught under the Judges of Israel (14411025), Reconstruction of
the 2 Tablets of Moses in the Original Alphabet
, translated from the
2nd   German   edition   (1984)   by  the  author,  2nd  English  edition
(Herborn   1985)   pp.   80   and   81.  On  Achinoam-Ahhotep  cf.  text
accompanying  Notearrow24  supra.
            28)    See    Immanuel    Velikovsky,   From   Exodus   to   King
Akhnaton  (German  1981)  chapter  2;  and  Ed Metzler, Discovering
Mosaistics  (N.  1)  p.  173  Note  29.
            29)  According  to  1.  Chronicles  9,  39  and  10,  2  King Saul
had   four   sons,  of  whom  three  died  in  battle  (1.  Samuel  31,  2).

[18]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [47]

in  the  Israelite  dynasty  of  Egypt.  If  he  wanted
to  be  succeeded  by  one  of  his  sons,  he  had to
let   him   marry  his  sister,  as  King  Solomon  did
later  on,  but  at  the very beginning of the Israelite
dynasty   of   Egypt  such  an  incestuous  marriage
was  still  out  of  the  question, because it offended
public   policy   in   Israel.30)   At   first   King  Saul
promised   to   give   his  elder  daughter  Merab  to
a  brave  young  man  by  the  name  of David, but
when  he  realized  that  he  would be his successor,
he   gave   her   to   somebody   else,  while  David
got   his   younger   daughter   Michal   (1.  Samuel
18,  1727).31)

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            30)  Had  King  Saul  obeyed  Samuel’s order not to take spoils
from  the  Hyksos-Amalekites,  which  implied  a  ban  on intermarriage
with  their  women  or  those  of  their  Egyptian subjects, whose over-
lords  they  were  (1.  Samuel  15,  3),  all  of these problems could have
been  avoided,  which  finally  led  to  Saul’s rejection from being king
(1.  Samuel  15,  23),  cf.  Wolfgang  Helck, Die Beziehungen Ägyptens
zu  Vorderasien  (Wiesbaden  1971)  p.  115  Note  35  on  the  marriage
of  King  Saul-Amenophis  I  into  thearrowHyksos  dynasty.
            31)  Breach  of  promise  served  to precipitate King Saul’s ruin,
since his prospective son-in-law David had been selected and already
anointed  by  the  prophet  Samuel  (1.  Samuel  16, 13) to succeed him
upon  death  (1.  Samuel  26,  10).  By  marrying  his  younger daughter
Michal  David  acquired  no  claim  to  the  throne,  so  that  he had no
choice  to  become King Saul’s successor but as the second husband
of  his  predecessor’s  wife,  see  above  Notearrow24.

[19]


 
[48]  
Ed  Metzler
  

       §  11.  However,  King  Saul  who wanted his
son   Jonathan  to  succeed  him  continued  to  be
afraid  of  David  and  tried  to kill him (1. Samuel
20,  31).32)  His  wife  Michal, who loved him, and
her  brother  Jonathan, who had made friends with
him,  helped  David  to  escape  to  the  Philistines,
with   whom  King  Saul  was  at  war.33)  Although
David   could   have   taken   King  Saul’s  life,  he
preferred  to  take  his  wife  Achinoam away from
Jezreel,   where  the  Israelites  stayed  (1.  Samuel
29,  1)  before  King  Saul  died in battle, and made
her his wife, as Saul had given Michal his daughter,
David’s  wife, to somebody else (1. Samuel 25, 43
and   44).34)   King   Saul’s  sons  were  also  killed

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            32) The son of an Egyptian mother, Jonathan knew his place
was  not  to  be  king,  but  David’s closest friend (1. Samuel 23, 17).
            33)  On  Michal see 1. Samuel 18, 28 and 19, 12; on Jonathan
1.  Samuel  18,  3  and  20,  1642.
            34)  This  is  a give and take: If Saul gave away David’s wife,
David had reason to retaliate by taking away Saul’s wife, which he
was  able to do, for Saul’s life was in his hand, as we learn from the
preceding  and  subsequent  chapter  (1.  Samuel  24, 11 and 26, 23).
It was from Jezreel that he took her, because King Saul’s residence
(Bet  Sha’ul)  is  Bet  Shean  (above Note 26) at the junction of the
Jordan  and  Jezreel  valley,  where the Philistines came to fight him.
After his death David got Michal back from her brother Ish-Boshet
(2.  Samuel  3.  1416),  and  kept  Achinoam.

[20]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [49]

(1. Samuel 31, 6 and 2. Samuel 4, 8), and so were
the  five  sons  of his daughter Merab and the two
sons  of  Ritzpah,  his  concubine  (2.  Samuel  21,
69),   whereas  Michal  never  had  any  children
(2.  Samuel  6,  23).35) 


D.  Law  Consists  of  Prophecies:  The
Prophecies  of  a  Supreme  Judge,
the  Prophet  Samuel

       §  12.  Law  consists  of  “the  prophecies of
what  the courts will do in fact, and nothing more
pretentious”,  according  to  the famous definition

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            35) When Saul’s anger was kindled against Jonathan, he said
to   him,  “Thou  son  of  a  perverse  and  rebellious  woman,  do  not
I  know  that  thou  hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own shame,
and   unto   the   shame   of   thy   mother’s  nakedness?”  (1.  Samuel
20,   30).   The   “perverse   and   rebellious   woman”  refers  to  King
Saul’s  Egyptian  wife  Achinoam-Ahhotep,  and  to  the promiscuity
of   a   matrilineal   society  such  as  ancient  Egypt,  while  the  word
“shame”   (Boshet)   is   a   euphemism  for  Ba‘al  “to fuck”  or  “the
fucker,   husband,   master   or   owner”,   as  e.  g.  in  Ish-Boshet  for
Eshbaal   (2.   Samuel  2,  10  and  1.  Chronicles  8,  33).  Hence  King
Saul’s   insult   may   be  translated  more  bluntly,  “You  son  of  an
Egyptian  bitch,  don’t  I  know  that  you  chose  David  to fuck you
and   your   mother’s   cunt?”  With  other  words,  King  Saul  knew

[21]


 
[50]  
Ed  Metzler
  

by  the late Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Associate
Justice  of the Supreme Court of the United States
of  America  from  19021932.36)  Conversely, the
biblical  prophets  such  as  SamuelAchijah, and
Shemaiah may be defined as lawyers, legal experts
foreseeing  legal consequences, or judges knowing
what  the  courts  will  do  in fact, predicting what
the  law  is  going to be, and giving their advice or
“prophecies”  on  the  basis  of  their  professional
know-how.   The   serious  legal  problems  of  an
Israeli-Egyptian  conflict  of  laws arising from the
intermarriage   of  an  Israelite  with  an  Egyptian
princess are foreseeable by an international lawyer

末末末末末末末 

that his son’s friend David was going to be his wife’s next husband,
and  from  the  story  of  Uriah’s  wife  (2. Samuel 11, 227) we know
that  David  was  the  kind  of  man,  who  would not hesitate to take
somebody  else’s  wife  away,  if  he  felt  like  it,  even  without  any
justification,    how  much  more  if  he  had a good reason to do so
(cf.  Notearrow34  supra).  Since  the  Bible  carefully  records  how  the
House  of  Saul  was  destroyed  (2.  Samuel 3, 1), what happened to
his  sons and daughters, whether or not his daughters had children,
and   what  became  of  his  concubine  Ritzpah  and  her  two  sons,
the  main  question  remains  as  to  who married King Saul’s widow
Achinoam,  which  would  be  left  open  unless she is identical with
his successor’s wife by the same name (above Notearrow24).
            36)  Cf.  Oliver  Wendell  Holmes,  Jr.,  The  Path  of  the  Law,
Harvard   Law   Review   vol.   10   (1897)   pp.  45768,  reprinted  in
M.   P.   Golding,   The   Nature   of   Law  (New  York  1966)  p.  179.

[22]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [51]

of  today,  and  by  his  colleague  of  some three
thousand  years  ago, whose prediction made him
a  “prophet”.
       §  13.  By  profession the “prophet” Samuel
was  a  supreme  judge,  the  last in a line of over
four  centuries  of  judges of the ancient Republic
of  Israel,  that  was  founded  by Moses, its first
supreme   judge,   in   1441  B.  C.  E.  after  the
liberation   and   Exodus  of  the  Hebrew  slaves
from Egypt.37) As “Moses sat to judge the people”
and  organized  their  court structure (Exodus 18,
1326),  so  “Samuel  judged  Israel  all the days
of  his  life” (1.  Samuel 7, 1517). The supreme

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            37)   Rigid   observance  of  the  Sabbath,  Passover,  and  the
New   Year   (Rosh  ha-Shanah),  commemorating  the  Exodus  from
Egypt  and  the  Creation  of  the  World,  make  Jewish  chronology
the   safest   of   antiquity.   In   Hebrew   “Creation   of   the  World”
(Beri’at  ha-‘Olam)  means  the  foundation of the ancient Republic
of  Israel  (‘Ol-‘Am  Asher  ha-El),  the  popular rule (democracy) of
liberated Hebrew slaves. Hence the Jewish era of creation beginning
inarrow3761  B.  C.  E.  is  not some fundamentalistic nonsense, but the
Exodus  date  (1441  B.  C.  E.)  in  cipher,  resulting from the addition
of  a  number  (2,320), symbolizing to every Jewish scribe and expert
of  Kabbalah  the  two  stone  Tablets  of  the Law with their 10 lines
(Devarim  “words”  or  Sefirot “spheres”) of 32 letters each, written
by  Moses  in  the  year  of  the  Exodus, cf. Ed Metzler, Discovering
Mosaistics  (N.  1) pp. 1967. Egyptology misdates Thutmosis III as
the  pharaoh  of  the  Exodus,  see  above  Notearrow12.

[23]


 
[52]  
Ed  Metzler
  

judges were called Elohim, which does not mean
“God”  in  legal  usage, but the earthly “judges”,
as  can  be  seen  from the story about the witch
of  En-Dor, who referred to the late chief justice
Samuel  as the Elohim (1. Samuel 28, 1114).38)
In  addition  to  his  jurisdiction,  in times of war
the  supreme judge acted as commander-in-chief
of  the  troops  (Elohey Tzeva’ot), who “walked
before”  them  (1.  Samuel 12, 2), as the Roman
“praetor”  did.39)
       §   14.  If  we  assume  that  Samuel  knew
that  King  Saul’s  wife Achinoam-Ahhotep was
the  daughter  of pharaoh Achimaatz-Ahmosis I,

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            38)   Both   Rashi   and   the   King   James   version  translate
Elohim   in   Exodus   22   with   Dayanim   (English   “judges”);  see
Ed  Metzler,  Discovering Mosaistics (N. 1) pp. 1405. The witch of
En-Dor  described  the  Elohim “judge” as an old man with a mantle,
whom  King  Saul  recognized  as  Samuel.  It was Samuel who had
anointed  him  and  his successor David (1. Samuel 10, 1 and 16, 13),
whose official title was Messiah “the anointed of the God of Jacob
or  rather  “. . . of the supreme judge” (2. Samuel 23, 1). Israel’s god
YaHUH  is  not  a  deified  ancestor,  as  de Moor (N. 51) pp. 25960
contends,  but  a  deification  of  the  Mosaical  Tablets  of  the Law
that   were   named  after  the  opening  words  ANKIAHUHALHIK
“I am YaHUH (shall be) thy God (supreme judge)” of the Covenant
inscribed  upon  them, as the alphabet invented by Moses was also
named  after  its  first  two  acrophonic  model  words.
            39)  The  Roman  “praetor”  (from Latin prae-itor) is literally

[24]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [53]

there is nothing supernatural about his prophecy
that Saul’s  kingdom  was to be discontinued or
“torn  away”  from  him,  and to be given to his
prospective son-in-law David (1. Samuel 15, 28
and  28,  17), to whom he had promised to give
his  elder  daughter  Merab  as wife (1. Samuel
18,  17).40) For under the Egyptian law of matri-
lineal  succession  it  was obvious that his eldest
son  Jonathan  would  not be his heir, unless he
married  his  elder  sister or even his mother, as
Oedipus-Akhenaten  did towards the end of the
Israelite dynasty of Egypt.41) Therefore, Samuel
anointed  David  as  general or dictator (Nagid)

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he  who  “walked  before”.  On the Elohey Tzeva’ot “God of hosts”
or   rather   “commander-in-chief of the armies”   (2.  Samuel  5,  10),
cf.  Ed  Metzler,  Discovering  Mosaistics  (N.  1)  p.  117.
            40) The prophet Samuel must also have known that Ritzpah
(Egyptian  he-Rita),  the concubine of King Saul-Amenophis I, was
the daughter of Agag-Apophis, the last Hyksos-Amalekite pharaoh,
cf.  T. G. H.  James in Cambridge Ancient History II, 1 (1989) p. 312;
as  well  as  supra  Notes 24 and 30. King Saul was not immediately
deposed  for  insubordination,  but  left  to bear the consequences,
which  consisted  in  being succeeded upon death (above Note 23)
according  to  the  law  of  matrilineal  succession.
            41)  SeearrowImmanuel  Velikovsky,  Oedipus and Akhenaton
(London  1960)  pp.  6996,  who  discovered  as  a  psychoanalyst
that  pharaoh  Akhenaten  “not  only  suffered  from  the  Oedipus
complex  but  was  the prototype of Oedipus himself.” What looks

[25]


 
[54]  
Ed  Metzler
  

of   the   ancient  Republic  of  Israel,  as  he  had
anointed   his   predecessor   Saul  before  him  to
wage  war  against  their  enemies.42) 


E.  The  Prophecies  of  Achijah  and
Shemaiah  on  Succession  after
King  Solomon’s  Death

       §   15.   With   the   same  words,  which  the
prophet  Samuel  had  used,  the  prophet Achijah
the  Shilonite  predicted  that  Solomon’s kingdom
was  to  be  “torn  away” from him, and ten tribes
of Israel were to be given to his servant Jeroboam,

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like  a  queer  lack of ambition in Jonathan, whose love David calls
“wonderful,  passing  the  love of women” (2. Samuel 1, 26), is best
explained  by  the  fact  that  he was the son of an Egyptian mother
(cf. Note 32 supra), who was bilingual and at home in two cultures,
with  an  insight into the Israeli-Egyptian conflict of laws which his
father  was  lacking,  but  his  friend  David  shared.
            42) When David fled south from Bet Shean (above Note 26)
towards the Egyptian border, he stopped about halfway to consult
the   prophet   Samuel  at  Ramah  (1.  Samuel  19,  18),  a  few  miles
north  of  Jerusalem,  which  would  not make sense geographically
if King Saul’s residence had been the present suburb of Jerusalem
by   the   name   of  “Giv‘at  Sha’ul”  (1.  Samuel  15,  34).  On  their
being  anointed,  see  above  Notes  31  and  38.

[26]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [55]

while  only  the  tribes  of  Judah  and  Benjamin
as  well  as  the  city  of Jerusalem between them
would remain with the House of David (1. Kings
11,  11  and  31).43)  Like  Samuel,  too,  Achijah
was  talking  about inheritance law. His prophecy
concerned  the  law  of  succession,  since  it was
to  take  effect  only after King Solomon’s death,
who  was  to  continue  “all  the  days of his life”
(1. Kings 11, 12 and 34).44) The prophet Achijah
must have known that Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba,
the Egyptian wife of King Solomon-Thutmosis II,

末末末末末末末 

            43)  This  prophecy  is accompanied by Keri‘ah “rending” or
“tearing”   of   garments   (1.   Kings   11,   30),   a  traditional  Jewish
mourning  custom  indicative of succession upon death, and so was
Samuel’s  prophecy  (1.  Samuel  15,  27),  see  above  Note  40. Both
prophecies   are   self-fulfilling,   for   by   marrying   into   matrilineal
societies  Saul  and  Solomon  subjected  themselves  to  the  law of
matrilineal   succession.   Violation   of   the   ban   on   intermarriage
with   foreign   women   (Exodus   34,   16)   resulted  in  worshipping
other   gods  (1.  Kings  11,  110),  which  amounts  to  a  choice  of
foreign  law  and  judges  (cf.  Note  38  supra).
            44)  The  day  King  Solomon-Thutmosis  II died, his son and
heirarrowThutmosis  III  had to be prepared for the take-over. With the
aid of the prophet Achijah he enlisted the services of Jeroboam, an
able  young  administrator  who  fled to Egypt, when King Solomon
tried   to   kill   him  (1.  Kings  11,  2640).  In  the  meantime,  Queen
Hatshepsut-Sheba,  King  Solomon’s half-sister and wife (Chnemet
Amon)
  was  the  de-facto  ruler  of  Egypt,  and Thutmosis III his or
Amon’s  designated successor, see above Note 14; and Ed Metzler,
Discovering  Mosaistics  (N.  1)  p.  183  Note  49.

[27]


 
[56]  
Ed  Metzler
  

had  only  one  child,  a  daughter, so that he was
able   to   predict  that  her  prospective  husband
Thutmosis  III  would  succeed  him.45)
       §  16. Neither Jeroboam nor Rehoboam was
King  Solomon’s  successor,  as we can see from
the  prophecies  of  Shemaiah.  His  intervention
made  Rehoboam,  a  son  of King Solomon who
had  seized  power in Jerusalem after his father’s
death,  confine  his  claims to the tribes of Judah
and Benjamin (1. Kings 12, 2124).46) Five years
later,  when the king of Egypt came to Jerusalem
with  an army, the prophet Shemaiah caused the
surrender  of  Rehoboam,  who humbled himself

末末末末末末末 

            45)   The   premature  death  of  Hatshepsut’s  only  daughter
and  heiress  Nofru-Re  posed  a  serious  problem  under the law of
matrilineal  succession,  cf. William C. Hayes in Cambridge Ancient
History   II,  1  (1989)  pp.  31720;  andarrowEd  Metzler,  Discovering
Mosaistics (N. 1) p. 182 Notes 47 and 48. It was solved by adopting
a  girl,  see  Bachofen  (N.  4) p. 326, whence her name Merit-Re (the
“beloved”  or  “adopted”  of)  Hatshepsut.
            46)  Rehoboam  was  little  more than the mayor of Jerusalem
with  jurisdiction  over  the  two  adjoining  counties  of  Judah and
Benjamin,  but  not  the  successor  on the throne of the Solomonic
empire  from  Ethiopia  to  the  Euphrates.  Hence he was dissuaded
by  the  prophet from conquering the rest of Israel or opposing the
pharaoh,  who  had  succeeded  King  Solomon-Thutmosis II. Such
a prophecy would otherwise have looked like cowardice or treason
had  Rehoboam  been  the  legitimate  heir.

[28]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [57]

and was left to rule his territory as the pharaoh’s
servant   (2.  Chronicles  12,  58).47)  This  only
makes  sense, if we assume that Shemaiah knew
that   pharaoh  Thutmosis  III,  whom  the  Bible
calls Shishak, was the son and successor of King
Solomon-Thutmosis  II.48) Hence his half-brother
Rehoboam  was  but  a  provincial  governor just
like  Jeroboam,  King Solomon’s former servant,
who  now  served  his  successor.
       §  17.  This  means  that  Jerusalem  ceased
to  be  the  capital  of  the empire of the Israelite
dynasty of Egypt, which extended from Ethiopia

末末末末末末末 

            47)  Unlike  Nebuchadnezzar’s  destruction  of  Jerusalem, the
purpose  of  Thutmosis III was to take possession of his late father’s
empire  in  a war of succession, see already Ed Metzler, Discovering
Mosaistics  (N.  1) p.arrow183.  He  did  not  come  before  the  death of
King Solomon-Thutmosis II, and was satisfied when his half-brother
Rehoboam  as  well  as  his  ministers paid homage to him, so that he
was  able  to  take  away all the treasures and insignia, especially the
throne  (1.  Kings  10,  1820;  and  14,  26).
            48)   WhyarrowThutmosis   III   is   called  Shishak  in  the  Bible
was  explained  by  Immanuel  Velikovsky  (N.  28)  pp.  165  and 187
with  reference  to  the  topographical  lists  of  Thutmosis  III, which
were  imitated  by  later  generations.  Erroneously  these  may  have
been  ascribed  to  pharaoh Shishak or Shoshenk, who had a similar
list  made  in  Karnak,  cf.  Jirku  (N. 26) pp. 4752. However, the list
of  Shishak-Shoshenk  does  not  mention  Jerusalem at all, whereas
the Israel list of Thutmosis III begins with Kodesh (Arabic El Kuds)
i.  e.  Jerusalem,  the  “Holy  City”  (Ir  ha-Kodesh).

[29]


 
[58]  
Ed  Metzler
  

to   the   Euphrates.49)   It   had   been  planned  by
King   David-Thutmosis   I,   who  still  resided  in
Thebes, the city of David on the River Nile (Millo
ha-Ye’or)
,50)  and  by  the  prophet  Nathan,  King
Solomon’s teacher who “called his name Jedidiah,
because  of  YaHUH” (2. Samuel 12, 25), instead
of  Amon-Re  or  El-Amon  from  which  Solomon
is   contracted.51)   Pursuant  to  these  plans  King
Solomon  built  Jerusalem,  that  was to be named
after   him   the   city   of  Solomon  or  Amon-Re
(Ir she-El Amon)
, and made her his capital during

末末末末末末末 

            49)  A  stela  (Matzevah)  to  commemorate  his  victory over
Syria  was set up by King David-Thutmosis I at the river Euphrates,
cf.  1.  Chronicles  18,  3  (le-Hatziv  Yado) and 2. Samuel 8, 3, where
the ancient Hebrew Tzadi is misread as Shin (le-Hashiv Yado). The
same  is  known from Egyptology, see e. g. Sir Wallis Budge (N. 12)
pp.  501  and  Margaret  S.  Drower in Cambridge Ancient History
II,  1  (1989)  pp.  4312.  While  Immanuel Velikovsky (N. 28) p. 116
recognized  that  David (DUD) and Thutmosis I are contemporaries,
he  failed  to  see  that  they  are  identical.
            50)  It  was  built  min  ha-Millo’  wa-Bayetah  “from the Nile
towards  the  Temple”  (2.  Samuel  5, 9). The Nile (Millo) literally is
the  Full  River,  “a  river  full of water” like “an Omer full of Manna”
(Exodus  16,  33)  or  “the  sea,  and  its  fulness” (Psalms  96, 11). In
later tradition the city of David (above Notes 1720) was displaced
from  Thebes to Jerusalem with concomitant interpolations, but the
story  of  its  capture  (2.  Samuel  5,  69 and 1. Chronicles 11, 48)
fits  better the city on the Nile, for he who arrived first on the other
bank  of the river Channel (Tzinnor) was promoted to be a general.
            51)  See  above  Note  14.  The  monotheism  of Israel led to

[30]


 
  
Conflict  of  Laws
  [59]

the  years  when  Queen  Hatshepsut-Sheba lived
there.  Her  divorce  and  return home with all the
gold,  which  constituted  her dowry and treasury,
decided  that  Thebes  would  again be the capital
after  King  Solomon’s  death.52)
       §   18.   One  of  the  most  splendid  periods
in  the  mutual  history  of  both Israel and Egypt
is  the  reign  of  King Solomon-Thutmosis II and
his Egyptian wife Queen Hatshepsut-Sheba, who
is  generally  misdated  more  than  five centuries
earlier.  Although the great Immanuel Velikovsky
found out that they are contemporaries, he failed

末末末末末末末 

a crisis in the polytheism of Egypt during the eighteenth or Israelite
dynasty,   cf.  Jan  Assmann,  Re  und  Amun,  Die  Krise  des  poly-
theistischen  Weltbilds  im Ägypten der 18.20. Dynastie (Fribourg
1983);  and  Johannes  de  Moor,  The Rise of Yahwism, The Roots
of  Israelite  Monotheism  (Louvain  1990)  p.  100,  who  is  right  in
seeing   the   interdependence   of   YaHUH   and   Amon Re,  which
was  caused  by  the  impact of Israel on Egypt under the House of
David-Thutmosis  I,    and  not  vice  versa!
            52)  On  their divorce cf. Ed Metzler, Discovering Mosaistics
(N. 1) pp.arrow175 andarrow1823. The word “divorce” (Latin divortium)
derives from divertere “to turn away”, and thus the story about the
Queen  of Sheba ends by saying that “she turned”, and went away
to  her  own  land  (1.  Kings  10,  13 and 2. Chronicles 9, 12). The in-
sertion of the two preceding verses (as e. g. Genesis 38 in the story
of  Joseph) indicates that a period of time, maybe 10 years, elapsed.
For  Hatshepsut-Sheba  referring  to  YaHUH “the Lord” in Hebrew
was  equivalent  to  Egyptian  Amon  Re  “the  hidden  god”.

[31]


 
[60]  
Ed  Metzler
  

to  see that they are husband and wife.53) As was
to  be  expected,  Conflict  of Laws proved to be
the  central  problem  in  their  marriage,  and  in
the   eighteenth   or  Israelite  dynasty  of  Egypt,
which remained hitherto unknown. By removing
its capital from Jerusalem to Thebes, the dynasty
was  able  to survive for a few more generations,
while  reducing  Israel,  its  land of origin, to the
humble  status  of  an  Egyptian  province. Thus
the  people  of  Israel,  who  once  had escaped
from  slavery by their Exodus from Egypt, were
back  in  Egypt  as  slaves.54)

末末末末末末末 

            53)  As  a  psychoanalyst,  Immanuel Velikovsky (N. 41) p. 11
had  a  legitimate  interest  in thearrowOedipus complex and its bearing
on  the  incestuous  marriages  of the eighteenth dynasty, which led
to  his  discovery  of  Israeli-Egyptian synchronisms, while the legal
implications   of   these  marriages,  namely  the  conflict  of  laws  in
the  Israelite  dynasty  of  Egypt,  which  I  had  the privilege to find
and  name  (see  above Notes 1 and 3), are the professional concern
of an  international  lawyer,  cf. Ed Metzler, Discovering Mosaistics
(N.  1)  p.  174  Note  31;  and  supra  Note  13.
            54)  When  Rehoboam  as  well as his ministers had humbled
themselves  before  the king of Egypt in Jerusalem (above Note 47),
the  word  of  YaHUH came to Shemaiah, saying: “. . . They shall be
his servants; that they may know my service, and the service of the
kingdoms  of  the  countries”  (2.  Chronicles 12, 8). What had been
accomplished  by  the  Exodus  from  Egypt,  was  lost  again by the
introduction  of  monarchy  in  Israel,  see Ed Metzler, Discovering
Mosaistics  (N.  1)  p.  147  Notearrow43.

[32]


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