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Metzler Formula · Mosaical Religions
King Saul was the predecessor of King
David and the first King of Israel, as Amenophis I was the predecessor
of Thutmosis I and the first pharaoh of the eighteenth or Israelite dynasty of Egypt.
Since King David is Thutmosis I, we
arrive at the conclusion that King Saul must be Amenophis I, cf. Ed
Metzler, Conflict of Laws in the Israelite
Dynasty of Egypt (Herborn 1991), pp. 16-18.
The identity of King Saul with pharaoh Amenophis I is proven by his
wifes name, who is known in Egyptology as Ahhotep, the daughter of
Ahmosis I, and in the Bible as Achinoam, the daughter of
Achimaatz (1. Samuel 14, 50), which is absolutely identical, for hotep
corresponds to Hebrew noam pleasant. She is the
pharaohs daughter who made Saul pharaoh by marriage (Ibid. p. 15).
Like Julius Caesar and Cleopatra 1000 years later, Saul was the
outsider who got a chance to marry into the Egyptian dynasty, after he had been victorious as a
general or dictator (Hebrew Nagid) of an old, but dying republic. The last president of
the ancient Republic of Israel, the supreme judge Samuel solemnly protested (1.
Samuel 8, 9) against the introduction of monarchy, - to no avail.
If we assume that Samuel knew that King
Sauls wife Achinoam-Ahhotep was the daughter of pharaoh
Achimaatz-Ahmosis I, there is nothing supernatural about his prophecy that
Sauls kingdom would be torn away from him, and given to his
prospective son-in-law David (1. Samuel 15, 28 and 28, 17), whom he had pomised to
give his elder daughter Merab as wife
(1. Samuel 18, 17).
When King Saul broke his promise,
David had no choice but to take away his wife Achinoam-Ahhotep from Jezreel,
where King Saul lived at Bet-Shean. It is mentioned as Bet Shaul, on the
topographical lists of Thutmosis III,
grandson of the second husband of King Sauls ex-wife, cf. Ed Metzler,
Conflict of Laws
in the Israelite
Dynasty of Egypt (Herborn 1991), p. 17 Note 26 and pp. 19-30.
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On all of the topographical lists by
Egyptian pharaohs of places in Israel, beginning with Thutmosis III,
Bet-Shean is never spelled with a final nasal N, but with a final liquid
L-sound [always written as R in Egyptian], so that it should be pronounced
Bet-Sheal, which is the defective spelling of Bet-Shaul, the
house or castle of King Saul situated on a strategic mountain top at the junction of the
Jezreel with the Jordan valley. It was from here that David escaped when
Saul tried to kill him (1. Samuel 19, 12), from Jezreel David took away King
Sauls wife Achinoam (1. Samuel 25, 43-44), and it was here where
the Philistines came to fight King Saul, and fastened his body to the wall of
Bet-Shean (1. Samuel 31, 10).
Jewish Heritage Site,
Israels First Capital,
and I hope the
Id love to teach Mosaistics at a university, preferably, of course, within the Law
School or Faculty of Law; just email me to Moziani@gmail.com.
See my books in the catalogue of The
National Library of Israel and the Hebrew University Library in Jerusalem, Israel, and in the official German Books in Print (VLB 1996-98) of the German Booksellers Association.